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Minoxidil (Minoxidil) - Summary



Minoxidil tablets contain the powerful antihypertensive agent, minoxidil, which may produce serious adverse effects. It can cause pericardial effusion, occasionally progressing to tamponade, and angina pectoris may be exacerbated. Minoxidil should be reserved for hypertensive patients who do not respond adequately to maximum therapeutic doses of a diuretic and two other antihypertensive agents.

In experimental animals, minoxidil caused several kinds of myocardial lesions as well as other adverse cardiac effects (see Cardiac Lesions in Animals).

Minoxidil must be administered under close supervision, usually concomitantly with therapeutic doses of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent to prevent tachycardia and increased myocardial workload. It must also usually be given with a diuretic, frequently one acting in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, to prevent serious fluid accumulation. Patients with malignant hypertension and those already receiving guanethidine (see WARNINGS) should be hospitalized when minoxidil is first administered so that they can be monitored to avoid too rapid, or large orthostatic, decreases in blood pressure.



Minoxidil tablets contain minoxidil, an antihypertensive peripheral vasodilator. Minoxidil occurs as a white to off-white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and propylene glycol; sparingly soluble in methanol; slightly soluble in water; practically insoluble in chloroform, acetone and ethyl acetate.

Because of the potential for serious adverse effects, minoxidil tablets are indicated only in the treatment of hypertension that is symptomatic or associated with target organ damage and is not manageable with maximum therapeutic doses of a diuretic plus two other antihypertensive drugs. At the present time use in milder degrees of hypertension is not recommended because the benefit-risk relationship in such patients has not been defined.

Minoxidil reduced supine diastolic blood pressure by 20 mm Hg or to 90 mm Hg or less in approximately 75% of patients, most of who had hypertension that could not be controlled by other drugs.

See all Minoxidil indications & dosage >>


Media Articles Related to Minoxidil

A General Cardiologist's Approach to Managing Hypertension
Source: theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology Headlines [2015.11.23]
Dr Henry Black interviews Dr John Bisognano and discusses his approach to managing hypertension and treating resistant hypertension.
Medscape Cardiology

International Conference on Hypertension & Treatment, August 04-06, 2016, Toronto
Source: Conferences News From Medical News Today [2015.11.13]
OMICS International announces the International Conference on Hypertension & Treatment to be held during August 04-06, 2016 at Toronto, Canada, focusing on "Hypertension and Treatment" with a view...

White coat and masked hypertension associated with higher rates of heart and vascular disease
Source: Hypertension News From Medical News Today [2015.11.10]
Patients whose blood pressures spikes in the doctor's office but not at home, and patients whose blood pressure spikes at home but not in the doctor's office, suffer more heart attacks, heart...

Efforts needed to improve the diets of African-Americans with uncontrolled hypertension
Source: Hypertension News From Medical News Today [2015.11.09]
Many African Americans with uncontrolled hypertension do not have recommended food categories in their homes and are not having adequate discussions with their doctors about diet.

New studies focus on hypertension in pregnant women and children
Source: Hypertension News From Medical News Today [2015.11.09]
Research is revealing new insights related to hypertension in pregnant women and children.

more news >>

Published Studies Related to Minoxidil

Randomized clinical trial comparing 5% and 1% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men. [2009.08]
Minoxidil is efficacious in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by inducing hair follicles to undergo transition from the early to late anagen phase... Our findings confirmed the superiority of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in treating Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. [2007.11]
BACKGROUND: An alternative to currently marketed topical minoxidil solutions is desirable. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of a new 5% minoxidil topical formulation in a propylene glycol-free foam vehicle in men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA)... CONCLUSIONS: We believe that 5% MTF is a safe and effective treatment for men with AGA.

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 1% topical minoxidil solution in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese women. [2007.01]
Minoxidil is effective in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by stimulating hair follicles to undergo transition from early to late anagen phase. However, there have been no controlled studies of topical minoxidil in Asian women... The patients tolerated treatment with 1% topical minoxidil well without significant adverse effects.

K+ channel activation with minoxidil stimulates nasal-epithelial ion transport and blunts exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. [2006.03]
Increased pulmonary capillary pressure and inhibition of alveolar Na+ transport putatively contribute to the formation of pulmonary edema in alveolar hypoxia such as at high altitude. Since both events might be linked to the inhibition of K+ channels, we studied whether in vivo application of minoxidil, a stimulator of ATP-gated K channels (K+ ATP channel activator) prevents both effects...

Treatment of anal fissures using a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine: a randomized, double-blind trial. [2005.07]
AIM : Anal fissures are associated with hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter and pain. We evaluated the efficacy of local application of a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine in healing anal fissures... CONCLUSION: Combination treatment with minoxidil and lignocaine helps in faster healing of anal fissures and provides better symptomatic relief than either drug alone.

more studies >>

Clinical Trials Related to Minoxidil

Minoxidil Response Testing in Males With Androgenetic Alopecia [Active, not recruiting]
Topical minoxidil is the most common drug used for the treatment of AGA in men. While topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population remains relatively low i. e., 30-40% re-grow hair. To observe significant improvement in hair growth, minoxidil is typically used twice daily for a period of at least 16 weeks. Due to the significant time commitment and low response rate, a diagnostic test to identify non-responders prior to initiating therapy would be advantageous. Minoxidil is converted in the scalp to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by the sulfotransferase enzyme SULT1A1. The enzyme expression is variable among individuals. We have demonstrated in two prior feasibility studies that the SULT1A1 enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles correlates with minoxidil response in the treatment of AGA and thus can server as a predictive biomarker. Consequently, we developed a minoxidil response in-vitro diagnostic kit intended to identify non-responders prior to initiating therapy with 5% topical minoxidil foam. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical validity of the minoxidil response in-vitro diagnostic kit.

Minoxidil Response Testing in Females With Female Pattern Hair Loss [Active, not recruiting]

Efficacy and Safety Comparing 5% Monoxidil Milky Lotion Versus 5% Minoxidil Solution in Androgenetic Alopecia [Recruiting]
5% Minoxidil lotion was approved for using to stimulate hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by US FDA science 1988. The mechanism of action still unclear. In general the 5% Minoxidil in solution is the first choice preparation for treatment, therefore allergic contact dermatitis to solution was report up to 5. 7% (Ebner H. et al,1995). Propylene glycol which is the main solvent of these solution, was the main responsible to allergic contact dermatitis with positive patch test up to 81. 8% (Friedman ES. et al. 2002) One of the alternative solution using butylene glycol as the solvent was invented to solve the problem. In Siriraj hospital the investigators using this new solvent and made our in house product called 5% Minoxidil milky lotion. However the efficacy and safety of the new solution have not been investigated. This study is conducted to evaluated efficacy and safety of 5% Minoxidil milky lotion compare with the classic solution in male androgenetic alopecia.

Minoxidil Dose Response Study in Females Identified Through IVD Testing as Non-Responders to 5% Topical Minoxidil [Not yet recruiting]
5% topical minoxidil is the maximum dosage approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. While topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population is relatively low i. e., 30-40% re-grow hair. The primary purpose of this study is to assess if a higher dosage of topical minoxidil dosage (15%) will increase the number of responders among female subjects that have been identified through IVD testing as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

Minoxidil 2% for Eyebrow Enhancement [Completed]
The purpose of the study is to compare minoxidil 2% versus placebo in enhancement of eyebrows.

more trials >>

Reports of Suspected Minoxidil Side Effects

Wrong Drug Administered (23)Tachycardia (21)Hypotension (19)Nausea (17)Headache (15)Palpitations (14)Toxicity TO Various Agents (12)Psoriasis (11)Alopecia (11)Hypertension (11)more >>


Based on a total of 5 ratings/reviews, Minoxidil has an overall score of 8.80. The effectiveness score is 10 and the side effect score is 8. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst. Below are selected reviews: the highest, the median and the lowest rated.

Minoxidil review by 38 year old male patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Highly Effective
Side effects:   No Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   Hair loss
Dosage & duration:   1mL (dosage frequency: x2 daily) for the period of 12 months
Other conditions:   thinning hair on crown and temples
Other drugs taken:   none
Reported Results
Benefits:   The benefits of using minoxidil was the halting of DHT buildup in the scalp around hair follicles. It also improved circulation to the scalp. This encouraged the recovery of thinning hair to become thicker and fuller. This halted hair loss and restored hair to cover up signs of male pattern baldness.
Side effects:   There were no observed side effects with the use of this product.
Comments:   1mL Minoxidil was applied twice daily to the scalp until the entire dose and been absorbed. treatment was coupled with Low Light Laser Therapy - 650nm 5W lasers that served to biostimulate the scalp and help in the halting of the effects of DHT.


Minoxidil review by 53 year old female patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Highly Effective
Side effects:   Mild Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   hair loss
Dosage & duration:   Men's formulation, applied twice daily (dosage frequency: twice daily) for the period of two years
Other conditions:   none
Other drugs taken:   none
Reported Results
Benefits:   Even though I am a woman, my dermatologist recommended that I use the men's dose of Rogain. It definitely thickened my hair, after using the woman's dose for several years, which just kept me from losing hair.
Side effects:   Mild drying of the scalp
Comments:   Applied men's formulation of rogaine to my scalp twice a day.


Minoxidil review by 33 year old female patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Highly Effective
Side effects:   Moderate Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   hair loss
Dosage & duration:   5% 4ml day (dosage frequency: 1x day) for the period of 4 years
Other conditions:   ulcerative colitis, depression
Other drugs taken:   MAOI
Reported Results
Benefits:   Dying follicles were reactivated and enlargened so large terminal hairs grew. Vellus hairs were shed and replaced with strong hairs. Hair thickened substantially
Side effects:   'Peach fuzz' vellus hair growth on my forehead and cheekbones. Dizziness when started using at first. Increased heart rate when first started using. Possible skin damage - minoxidil breaks down collagen.
Comments:   The recommended application is 1ml twice daily. I ended up applying 4ml once daily for over a year. So, I was using too much. The results were pretty amazing.

See all Minoxidil reviews / ratings >>

Page last updated: 2015-11-23

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