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Minocycline (Minocycline Hydrochloride) - Summary



Minocycline hydrochloride is an antibiotic, a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline.

Minocycline hydrochloride capsules are indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:
     Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
     Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
     Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
     Psittacosis (Ornithosis) due to Chlamydia psittaci.
     Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
     Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
     Nongonococcal urethritis, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum or Chlamydia trachomatis.
     Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.
     Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
     Plague due to Yersinia pestis.
     Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.
     Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.
     Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.
     Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
     Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.
     Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Minocycline is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
     Escherichia coli.
     Enterobacter aerogenes.
     Shigella species.
     Acinetobacter species.
     Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
     Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.
Minocycline hydrochloride capsules are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
     Upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
     Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (Note: Minocycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.)
When penicillin is contraindicated, minocycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:
     Uncomplicated urethritis in men due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and for the treatment of other gonococcal infections.
     Infections in women caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
     Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
     Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.
     Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
     Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis.
     Vincent's infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.
     Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.
     Infections caused by Clostridium species.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, minocycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
In severe acne, minocycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
Oral minocycline is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis to eliminate meningococci from the nasopharynx. In order to preserve the usefulness of minocycline in the treatment of asymptomatic meningococcal carriers, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed to establish the carrier state and the correct treatment. It is recommended that the prophylactic use of minocycline be reserved for situations in which the risk of meningococcal meningitis is high.
Oral minocycline is not indicated for the treatment of meningococcal infection.
Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, limited clinical data show that oral minocycline hydrochloride has been used successfully in the treatment of infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of minocycline hydrochloride capsules and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Published Studies Related to Minocycline

Effect of Minocycline on Lumbar Radicular Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Clinical Trial with Amitriptyline as a Comparator. [2014]
the treatment of neuropathic pain... CONCLUSIONS:: Although both groups differed from placebo, their effect size was

Adjuvant therapy with minocycline for schizophrenia (The MINOS Trial): study protocol for a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. [2013]
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is understood to be a heterogeneous brain condition with overlapping symptom dimensions. The negative symptom dimension, with its protean cognitive manifestations, responds poorly to treatment, which can be a particular challenge in countries where clozapine therapy is not available.

High MMP-9 activity levels in fragile X syndrome are lowered by minocycline. [2013]
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lack of the FMR1 protein, FMRP, a translational repressor... The results of this study suggest that, in humans, activity levels of MMP-9 are lowered by minocycline and that, in some cases, changes in MMP-9 activity are positively associated with improvement based on clinical measures.

A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of minocycline in children and adolescents with fragile x syndrome. [2013]
CONCLUSIONS: Minocycline treatment for 3 months in children with FXS resulted in

Minocycline benefits negative symptoms in early schizophrenia: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients on standard treatment. [2012]
The onset and early course of schizophrenia is associated with subtle loss of grey matter which may be responsible for the evolution and persistence of symptoms such as apathy, emotional blunting, and social withdrawal...

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Clinical Trials Related to Minocycline

Pilot Study of Minocycline in Huntington's Disease [Active, not recruiting]
This study is being conducted to assess the impact of minocycline on the progression of symptoms of HD. The study will also assess whether it is reasonable to continue with further study of minocycline in HD. We will measure the effect of minocycline on HD by measuring the change in Huntington's disease symptoms.

Treatment of Early RA: Minocycline in Combination With Methotrexate vs Methotrexate Alone [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to determine if a combination of methotrexate and minocycline works better than methotrexate alone in early Rheumatoid Arthritis

Comparison of Tazarotene and Minocycline Therapies for Maintenance of Facial Acne Vulgaris [Completed]

Study of a Neuroprotective Drug to Limit the Extent of Damage From an Ischemic Stroke [Recruiting]
The primary aim of this study is to find out which of 4 different doses of minocycline are safe and well tolerated so that we will know the optimal dose to test in future patients.

Trial of Minocycline to Treat Children With Fragile X Syndrome [Recruiting]
This is a single center study at the UC Davis MIND Institute in patients age 3. 5-16 years of age with fragile X syndrome (FXS), funded by a National Fragile X Foundation Grant. It is a controlled trial of minocycline, an antibiotic commonly used in children for infection or for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. We are investigating its use in FXS because it lowers matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) levels, which are high in FXS, and it also strengthens brain connections in the animal models of FXS. We hypothesize that minocycline will likely be helpful for language, behavior and/or cognition in fragile X patients.

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Based on a total of 20 ratings/reviews, Minocycline has an overall score of 5.85. The effectiveness score is 6.70 and the side effect score is 7.50. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst. Below are selected reviews: the highest, the median and the lowest rated.

Minocycline review by 25 year old female patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Highly Effective
Side effects:   No Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   acne
Dosage & duration:   5mg taken 2 times/day for the period of 6 months
Other conditions:   none
Other drugs taken:   none
Reported Results
Benefits:   face cleared up conciderably. It took about 2 months for the drug to become conciderably effective though.
Side effects:   There were no side effects associated with the drug. The doctor mentioned it would make birth control ineffective but had no confirmation of that.
Comments:   Face and body cleared up conciderably. It did take a while for the drug to take effect - but was worth it in the end. I am now pregnant and will continue treatments after I have the baby. Once I stopped taking it before I got pregnant - my face began to break out again. So you really have to continue to take it to keep the benefits.


Minocycline review by 35 year old female patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Marginally Effective
Side effects:   No Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   Treatment of acne
Dosage & duration:   75mg taken once a day for the period of 1 year
Other conditions:   none
Other drugs taken:   none
Reported Results
Benefits:   I took Minocycline hoping that it would clear up my acne. I have been taking Tetracycline for over 2 years without no result, frustrated, my doctor prescribed Minocyline. After 1 year, I was still having break out just not as bad.
Side effects:   The treatment had no side effect on me.
Comments:   I don't have severe acne problem, just occasional break out. I was prescribed Minocycline by my doctor and was advised to take it once a day for treatment of my acne. I was told that it would take up to six month to see result. After more than a year being on it, it did very little for me. I was still breaking out, it just that some of my break out was not as bad. Bottom line, I was not satisfied because it did not help clear up my acne altogether.


Minocycline review by 22 year old male patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Considerably Effective
Side effects:   Extremely Severe Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   acne
Dosage & duration:   100mg taken twice a day for the period of 5 days
Other conditions:   None
Other drugs taken:   None
Reported Results
Benefits:   Decreased the number of acne lesions.
Side effects:   Major Headaches Neck Pain
Comments:   I have been taking minocycline 100mg twice a day. At first I had no side effects what so ever. However after a week I started heaving headaches and they gradually got worse. It was when I started having neck pains, I stopped using Minocycline. Although I stopped using it, I never thought the pains were due to it - I thought it was from going out right after the shower which I often do. That same night I woke up with hives appearing in my body and towards the end of the day, my face got swollen (eyes and my inner lip.) At first I thought it was a food allergy, went to the doctor and got a full blood test (White blood cells, red cells, cholesterol, sugar, full allergy, almost everything.) During the waiting period of my results (took about a week and a half) I was taking steroid pills for allergies and I got back to normal within 5 days. On the 8th day, I was like hmm lets take minocycline again, I wanna be proactive and not break out on acne again. I took one pill at night after 8 days of not using it, and the next day I got itchy hands and a few hives and then I realized it was the minocycline that I was reacting to. Luckily I only took one pill and over the counter allergy medicine such as zyrtec got rid off my itchiness and I am back to normal again. So around 8-9 days later after I gave blood, the results came to my doctor. To my surprise everything came normal no allergies what so ever, no pollen, no nuts, no nuts, no dust completely NO ALLERGIES. My Red Blood cell count along with hematocrit came a little high but nothing else. I am almost confident to say that minocycline was what I was reacting to and my doctor told me to stop taking it.

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Page last updated: 2014-11-30

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