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Metoclopramide (Metoclopramide Hydrochloride) - Summary



Treatment with metoclopramide can cause tardive dyskinesia, a serious movement   disorder that is often irreversible. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia increases with duration of treatment and total cumulative dose.

Metoclopramide therapy should be discontinued in patients who develop signs or   symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. There is no known treatment for tardive dyskinesia. In some patients, symptoms may lessen or resolve after metoclopramide treatment is stopped.

Treatment with metoclopramide for longer than 12 weeks should be avoided in all but rare cases where therapeutic benefit is thought to outweigh the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia.




Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a white or practically white, crystalline, odorless or practically odorless powder. It is very soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in chloroform, practically insoluble in ether.

The use of metoclopramide   tablets is recommended for adults only. Therapy should not exceed 12 weeks in duration.

Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux:

Metoclopramide tablets are indicated as short-term (4 to 12 weeks) therapy for adults with symptomatic, documented gastroesophageal reflux who fail to respond to conventional therapy.

The principal effect of metoclopramide is on symptoms of postprandial and daytime heartburn with less observed effect on nocturnal symptoms. If symptoms are confined to particular situations, such as following the evening meal, use of metoclopramide as single doses prior to the provocative situation should be considered, rather than using the drug throughout the day. Healing of esophageal ulcers and erosions has been endoscopically demonstrated at the end of a 12-week trial using doses of 15 mg q.i.d. As there is no documented correlation between symptoms and healing of esophageal lesions, patients with documented lesions should be monitored endoscopically.

Diabetic Gastroparesis (Diabetic Gastric Stasis):

Metoclopramide tablets, USP are indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with acute and recurrent diabetic gastric stasis. The usual manifestations of delayed gastric emptying (e.g., nausea, vomiting, heartburn, persistent fullness after meals, and anorexia) appear to respond to metoclopramide within different time intervals. Significant relief of nausea occurs early and continues to improve over a three-week period. Relief of vomiting and anorexia may precede the relief of abdominal fullness by one week or more.

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Published Studies Related to Metoclopramide

Ondansetron compared with metoclopramide for hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial. [2014]
hyperemesis gravidarum... CONCLUSION: Ondansetron and metoclopramide demonstrated similar antiemetic and

A trial of midazolam vs diphenhydramine in prophylaxis of metoclopramide-induced akathisia. [2012.01]
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of midazolam and diphenhydramine for the prevention of metoclopramide-induced akathisia... CONCLUSION: Coadministered midazolam reduced the incidence of akathisia induced by metoclopramide compared to placebo but increased the rate of sedation. No difference was detected from diphenhydramine. Routine coadministered 20 mg diphenhydramine did not prevent metoclopramide-induced akathisia. Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Metoclopramide to augment lactation, does it work? A randomized trial. [2011.11]
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of metoclopramide on augmentation of milk production in mothers of premature newborns... CONCLUSION: In mothers with preterm babies, metoclopramide treatment does not augment (sample size had 80% power for detection of 50% difference) the breast milk production. Maternal interest, education, and support are recognized as mainstay in accomplishing successful lactation.

Intramuscular injection of metoclopramide decreases the gastric transit time and does not increase the complete examination rate of capsule endoscopy: a prospective randomized controlled trial. [2011.09]
CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular injection of metoclopramide decreases the gastric transit time, but it does not change the SBTT or CER of capsule endoscopy in our study.

Metoclopramide as an analgesic in severe migraine attacks: an open, single-blind, parallel control study. [2011.05.01]
Metoclopramide is a well-known anti-emetic drug with central and peripheral pharmacological effects. Some authors have reported metoclopramide as an adjunct therapy to other analgesics in patients with migraine attacks...

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Clinical Trials Related to Metoclopramide

Pharmacogenetic Factors and Side Effects of Metoclopramide and Diphenhydramine [Active, not recruiting]

Comparison of Efficacy Dimenhydrinate and Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Nausea Due to Vertigo [Completed]

- Vertigo complaint is one of the common cause of patients who applied to emergency


- Patients who have applied to emergency services with vertigo complaint mostly have

nausea as an additionally symptom to this complaint and anti-emetic agents can be used in their treatments very often.

- The investigators purpose is to investigate the advantages of Dimenhydrinate and

metoclopramide to each other in the treatment of vertigo and the vertigo accompanied by nausea

The Montefiore Metoclopramide Study [Completed]
Metoclopramide is a dopamine antagonist frequently used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, and migraine headaches in Emergency Departments. However, little research has focused on the optimal dose of metoclopramide for treatment of nausea in the emergency department. We propose a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to investigate the optimal dose of metoclopramide for treatment of nausea.

Intravenous Ketorolac and Metoclopramide for Pediatric Migraine in the Emergency Department [Completed]
Migraine headaches are a common problem for children. When treatment at home fails, children may benefit from intravenous treatment administered in a hospital setting like the Emergency Department. Most treatments used however have only been tested in adults and the best treatment strategy for children is not always clear. The combination of more than one medication is frequently prescribed in Canadian Emergency Departments. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the combination of ketorolac (an anti-inflammatory pain medication) and metoclopramide (an anti-nauseant that may also relieve migraine headaches) is better than metoclopramide by itself.

Comparison of Metoclopramide and Ibuprofen for the Treatment of Acute Mountain Sickness [Recruiting]
The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of metoclopramide in relieving the symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). It is our hypothesis that the combined antiemetic and analgesic effects of metoclopramide (which has been study-proven to be effective in relieving symptoms of migraine headache) will prove to be more efficacious in relieving symptoms of acute mountain sickness than the standard, previously-studied analgesic medication, ibuprofen.

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Reports of Suspected Metoclopramide Side Effects

Tardive Dyskinesia (4167)Extrapyramidal Disorder (3383)Dystonia (3045)Nervous System Disorder (1341)Economic Problem (329)Tremor (248)Akathisia (242)Emotional Disorder (233)Pain (212)Dyskinesia (194)more >>


Based on a total of 1 ratings/reviews, Metoclopramide has an overall score of 1. The effectiveness score is 2 and the side effect score is 4. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst.

Metoclopramide review by 56 year old female patient

Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Ineffective
Side effects:   Severe Side Effects
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   nausea
Dosage & duration:   10mg oral taken every 6 hours for the period of 1 day
Other conditions:   Nil
Other drugs taken:   No other drugs
Reported Results
Benefits:   There were no treatment benefits from this particular drug. My nausea was not controlled at all, in fact I felt more nauseaus after taking the medication.
Side effects:   I had severe restlessness, developed an intense feeling of anxiety, had an extreme desire to sit down, then lay down and went on to develop a dystonic reaction. I developed an intense feeling of doom, my stomach had feelings of cramps, knotting and pain. My neck felt tense and the ambulance was called and I was taken to the emergency dept of local hospital.
Comments:   Ambulance officers gave me pain relief and this settled my stomach of the knotting and cramping/pain. This also settled the feeling of doom. In emergency, after numerous examinations and questionning, abdo xray, I was given IV hydration x 2 litres and Ondansetron IV x 2 - 8 hours apart. I was observed in emergency overnight and went home the next morning with no side effects at all. Never will I take maxalon again!

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Page last updated: 2014-12-01

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