IN GENERAL, THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF ACUTE SIDE EFFECTS ARE RELATED TO DOSE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION. THE MOST SERIOUS REACTIONS ARE DISCUSSED ABOVE UNDER ORGAN SYSTEM TOXICITY IN THE PRECAUTION SECTION. THAT SECTION SHOULD ALSO BE CONSULTED WHEN LOOKING FOR INFORMATION ABOUT ADVERSE REACTIONS WITH METHOTREXATE.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions include ulcerative stomatitis, leukopenia, nausea, and abdominal distress. Other frequently reported adverse effects are malaise, undue fatigue, chills and fever, dizziness and decreased resistance to infection.
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with methotrexate are listed below by organ system. In the oncology setting, concomitant treatment and the underlying disease make specific attribution of a reaction to methotrexate difficult.
Alimentary System: gingivitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hematemesis, melena, gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, enteritis, pancreatitis.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Suppressed hematopoiesis causing anemia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, and/or thrombocytopenia, lymphadenopathy and lymphoproliferative disorders (including reversible). Hypogammaglobulinemia has been reported rarely.
Cardiovascular: pericarditis, pericardial effusion, hypotension, and thromboembolic events (including arterial thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, retinal vein thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary embolus).
Central Nervous System: headaches, drowsiness, blurred vision, transient blindness, speech impairment including dysarthria and aphasia, hemiparesis, paresis and convulsions have also occurred following administration of methotrexate. Following low doses, there have been occasional reports of transient subtle cognitive dysfunction, mood alteration, unusual cranial sensations, leukoencephalopathy, or encephalopathy.
Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatotoxicity, acute hepatitis, chronic fibrosis and cirrhosis, decrease in serum albumin, liver enzyme elevations.
Infection: There have been case reports of sometimes fatal opportunistic infections in patients receiving methotrexate therapy for neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the most common opportunistic infection. There have also been reports of infections, pneumonia, sepsis, nocardiosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, Herpes zoster, H. simplex hepatitis, and disseminated H. simplex.
Musculoskeletal System: stress fracture.
Ophthalmic: conjuctivitis, serious visual changes of unknown etiology.
Pulmonary System: respiratory fibrosis, respiratory failure, interstitial pneumonitis deaths have been reported, and chronic interstitial obstructive pulmonary disease has occasionally occurred.
Skin: erythematous rashes, pruritus, urticaria, photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, alopecia, ecchymosis, telangiectasia, acne, furunculosis, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, skin necrosis, skin ulceration, and exfoliative dermatitis.
Urogenital System: severe nephropathy or renal failure, azotemia, cystitis, hematuria; defective oogenesis or spermatogenesis, transient oligospermia, menstrual dysfunction, vaginal discharge, and gynecomastia; infertility, abortion, fetal defects.
Other rarer reactions related to or attributed to the use of methotrexate such as nodulosis, vasculitis, arthralgia/myalgia, loss of libido/impotence, diabetes, osteoporosis, sudden death, reversible lymphomas, tumor lysis syndrome, soft tissue necrosis and osteonecrosis. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported.
Adverse Reactions in Double-Blind Rheumatoid Arthritis Studies
The approximate incidences of methotrexate attributed (i.e., placebo rate subtracted) adverse reactions in 12 to 18 week double-blind studies of patients (n = 128) with rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose oral (7.5 to 15 mg/week) pulse methotrexate, are listed below. Virtually all of these patients were on concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some were also taking low dosages of corticosteroids. Hepatic histology was not examined in these short-term studies. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Incidence Greater than 10%: Elevated liver function tests 15%, nausea/vomiting 10%.
Incidence 3% to 10%: Stomatitis, thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 100,000/mm3).
Incidence 1% to 3%: Rash/pruritus/dermatitis, diarrhea, alopecia, leukopenia (WBC less than 3000/mm3), pancytopenia, dizziness.
Two other controlled trials of patients (n = 680) with Rheumatoid Arthritis on 7.5mg - 15mg/wk oral doses showed an incidence of interstitial pneumonitis of 1%. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Other less common reactions included decreased hematocrit, headache, upper respiratory infection, anorexia, arthralgias, chest pain, coughing, dysuria, eye discomfort, epistaxis, fever, infection, sweating, tinnitus, and vaginal discharge.
Adverse Reaction in Psoriasis
There are no recent placebo-controlled trials in patients with psoriasis. There are two literature reports (Roenigk, 1969 and Nyfors, 1978) describing large series (n = 204, 248) of psoriasis patients treated with methotrexate. Dosages ranged up to 25 mg per week and treatment was administered for up to four years. With the exception of alopecia, photosensitivity, and “burning of skin lesions” (each 3% to 10%), the adverse reaction rates in these reports were very similar to those in the rheumatoid arthritis studies. Rarely, painful plaque erosions may appear.
Adverse Reactions in JRA Studies
The approximate incidences of adverse reactions reported in pediatric patients with JRA treated with oral, weekly doses of methotrexate (5 to 20 mg/m2/wk or 0.1 to 0.65 mg/kg/wk) were as follows (virtually all patients were receiving concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and some also were taking low doses of corticosteroids): elevated liver function tests, 14%; gastrointestinal reactions (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), 11%; stomatitis, 2%; leukopenia, 2%; headache, 1.2%; alopecia, 0.5%; dizziness, 0.2%; and rash, 0.2%. Although there is experience with dosing up to 30 mg/m2/wk in JRA, the published data for doses above 20 mg/m2/wk are too limited to provide reliable estimates of adverse reaction rates.
REPORTS OF SUSPECTED METHOTREXATE SIDE EFFECTS / ADVERSE REACTIONS
Below is a sample of reports where side effects / adverse reactions may be related to Methotrexate. The information is not vetted and should not be considered as verified clinical evidence.
Possible Methotrexate side effects / adverse reactions in 17 year old female
Reported by a health professional (non-physician/pharmacist) from United States on 2011-10-03
Patient: 17 year old female
Reactions: Vomiting, Blood Phosphorus Increased, Nausea, Blood Potassium Increased, Fungaemia, Tumour Lysis Syndrome, Oesophagitis, Dehydration, Pulmonary Oedema, Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage, Hypovolaemia, Cardiac Failure Congestive, Deep Vein Thrombosis, Renal Failure Acute
Adverse event resulted in: hospitalization
Possible Methotrexate side effects / adverse reactions in 54 year old male
Reported by a health professional (non-physician/pharmacist) from United Kingdom on 2011-10-03
Patient: 54 year old male
Reactions: Fungal Infection, Pyrexia, Neutropenia, Septic Shock
Adverse event resulted in: death
Dosage: 30 mg, unk
Dosage: unk ukn, unk
Dosage: 12.5 mg, unk
Dosage: 12.5 mg, unk
Dosage: unk ukn, unk
Other drugs received by patient: Amphotericin B
Possible Methotrexate side effects / adverse reactions in 39 year old female
Reported by a health professional (non-physician/pharmacist) from France on 2011-10-03
Patient: 39 year old female
Reactions: Pneumonia Aspiration, Drug Ineffective, Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Adverse event resulted in: death, hospitalization
Start date: 2002-11-01
End date: 2005-02-01
Start date: 2001-12-01
End date: 2002-11-01
Dosage: form: infusion
Other drugs received by patient: Prednisone; Prednisone; Prednisone; Prednisone; Prednisone; Prednisone; Prednisone