METHAZOLAMIDE TABLETS USP
25 mg and 50 mg
Methazolamide, a sulfonamide derivative, is a white crystalline powder, weakly acidic, slightly soluble in water, alcohol and acetone. The chemical name for methazolamide is: N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-3-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazo1-2(3H)-ylidene]-acetamide and it has the following structural formula:
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 25 mg or 50 mg methazolamide. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, magnesium stearate (powder), and microcrystalline cellulose.
Methazolamide is a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase.
Methazolamide is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Peak plasma concentrations are observed 1 to 2 hours after dosing. In a multiple-dose, pharmacokinetic study, administration of methazolamide 25 mg bid, 50 mg bid, and 100 mg bid demonstrated a linear relationship between plasma methazolamide levels and methazolamide dose. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for the 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg bid regimens were 2.5 mcg/mL, 5.1 mcg/mL, and 10.7 mcg/mL, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) was 1130 mcg.min/mL, 2571 mcg.min/mL, and 5418 mcg.min/mL for the 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg dosage regimens, respectively.
Methazolamide is distributed throughout the body including the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous humor of the eye, red blood cells, bile and extra-cellular fluid. The mean apparent volume of distribution (Varea/F) ranges from 17 L to 23 L. Approximately 55% is bound to plasma proteins. The steady-state methazolamide red blood cell:plasma ratio varies with dose and was found to be 27:1, 16:1, and 10:1 following the administration of methazolamide 25 mg bid, 50 mg bid, and 100 mg bid, respectively.
The mean steady-state plasma elimination half-life for methazolamide is approximately 14 hours. At steady-state, approximately 25% of the dose is recovered unchanged in the urine over the dosing interval. Renal clearance accounts for 20% to 25% of the total clearance of drug. After repeated bid-tid dosing, methazolamide accumulates to steady-state concentrations in 7 days.
Methazolamide’s inhibitory action on carbonic anhydrase decreases the secretion of aqueous humor and results in a decrease in intraocular pressure. The onset of the decrease in intraocular pressure generally occurs within 2 to 4 hours, has a peak effect in 6 to 8 hours and a total duration of 10 to 18 hours.
Methazolamide is a sulfonamide derivative; however, it does not have any clinically significant antimicrobial properties. Although methazolamide achieves a high concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, it is not considered an effective anticonvulsant.
Methazolamide has a weak and transient diuretic effect; therefore, use results in an increase in urinary volume, with excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride. The drug should not be used as a diuretic. Inhibition of renal bicarbonate reabsorption produces an alkaline urine. Plasma bicarbonate decreases, and a relative, transient metabolic acidosis may occur due to a disequilibrium in carbon dioxide transport in the red cell. Urinary citrate excretion is decreased by approximately 40% after doses of 100 mg every 8 hours. Uric acid output has been shown to decrease 36% in the first 24 hour period.