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Mesna (Mesna) - Warnings and Precautions

 
 



WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Mesna may cause systemic hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. These reactions may include fever, cardiovascular symptoms (hypotension, tachycardia), acute renal impairment, hypoxia, respiratory distress, urticaria, angioedema, laboratory signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation, hematological abnormalities, increased liver enzymes, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, and myalgia. These reactions may occur with the first exposure or after several months of exposure. Monitor for signs or symptoms. Discontinue mesna and provide supportive care.

Dermatologic Toxicity

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and bullous and ulcerative skin and mucosal reactions, consistent with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis have occurred. Mesna may cause skin and mucosal reactions characterized by urticaria, rash, erythema, pruritus, burning sensation, angioedema, periorbital edema, flushing and stomatitis. These reactions may occur with the first exposure or after several months of exposure. Discontinue mesna and provide supportive care.

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity

Benzyl alcohol, a preservative in mesna, has been associated with serious adverse reactions and death (including gasping syndrome) in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources when prescribing mesna (10.4 mg benzyl alcohol per mL). Neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of toxicity. Avoid use in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants [see Use in Specific Populations ].

Laboratory Test Interferences

False-Positive Urine Tests for Ketone Bodies

A false positive test for urinary ketones may arise in patients treated with mesna when using nitroprusside sodium-based urine tests (including dipstick tests). The addition of glacial acetic acid can be used to differentiate between a false positive result (cherry-red color that fades) and a true positive result (red-violet color that intensifies).

False-Negative Tests for Enzymatic CPK Activity

Mesna may interfere with enzymatic creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) activity tests that use a thiol compound (e.g., N-acetylcysteine) for CPK reactivation. This may result in a falsely low CPK level.

False-Positive Tests for Ascorbic Acid

Mesna may cause false-positive reactions in Tillman's reagent-based urine screening tests for ascorbic acid.

Use in Patients with a History of Adverse Reactions to Thiol Compounds

Mesna is a thiol compound, i.e., a sulfhydryl (SH) group-containing organic compound. Hypersensitivity reactions to mesna and to amifostine, another thiol compound, have been reported. It is not clear whether patients who experienced an adverse reaction to a thiol compound are at increased risk for a hypersensitivity reaction to mesna.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B.

Risk Summary

There are no studies of mesna in pregnant women. Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses approximately 10 times the maximum recommended total daily intravenous-oral-oral human dose on a body surface area basis (1000 mg/kg in rabbits and 2000 mg/kg in rats) revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to mesna. The incidence of malformations in human pregnancies has not been established for mesna. All pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2 to 4% for major malformations and 15 to 20% for pregnancy loss. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether mesna or dimesna is excreted in human milk. Benzyl alcohol present in maternal serum is likely to cross into human milk and may be orally absorbed by a nursing infant. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants from mesna, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of mesna in pediatric patients have not been established. Mesna contains benzyl alcohol (10.4 mg benzyl alcohol per mL) which has been associated with serious adverse reactions and death in pediatric patients. The "gasping syndrome," (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis and gasping respirations) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages >99 mg/kg/day in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources [see Warnings and Precautions].

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of mesna did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. The ratio of ifosfamide to mesna should remain unchanged.

Use in Patients with Renal Impairment

No clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of mesna.

Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of mesna.

Page last updated: 2014-04-30

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