Lotensin HCT has been evaluated for safety in over 2500 patients with hypertension; over 500 of these patients were treated for at least 6 months, and over 200 were treated for more than 1 year.
The reported side effects were generally mild and transient, and there was no relationship between side effects and age, sex, race, or duration of therapy. Discontinuation of therapy due to side effects was required in approximately 7% of U.S. patients treated with Lotensin HCT and in 4% of patients treated with placebo.
The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with Lotensin HCT in U.S. studies were cough (1.0%; see PRECAUTIONS), “dizziness” (1.0%), headache (0.6%), and fatigue (0.6%).
The side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in U.S. placebo-controlled trials in more than 1% of patients treated with Lotensin HCT are shown in the table below.
| Reactions Possibly or Probably Drug Related |
Patients in U.S. Placebo-Controlled Studies
N = 665
N = 235
| N || % || N || % |
Other side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in U.S. placebo-controlled trials in 0.3% to 1.0% of patients treated with Lotensin HCT were the following:
Angioedema: Edema of the lips or face without other manifestations of angioedema (0.3%). See WARNINGS, Angioedema.
Cardiovascular: Hypotension (seen in 0.6% of patients), postural hypotension (0.3%), palpitations, and flushing.
Gastrointestinal: Vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, anorexia, and constipation.
Neurologic and Psychiatric: Insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, libido decrease, dry mouth, taste perversion, and tinnitus.
Dermatologic: Rash and sweating.
Other: Gout, urinary frequency, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, and pain (including chest pain and abdominal pain).
Other adverse experiences reported in 0.3% or more of Lotensin HCT patients in U.S. controlled clinical trials, and rarer events seen in post-marketing experience, were the following; asterisked entries occurred in more than 1% of patients (in some, a causal relationship to Lotensin HCT is uncertain):
Angioedema: Edema of the lips or face without other manifestations of angioedema. See WARNINGS, Angioedema.
Cardiovascular: Syncope, peripheral vascular disorder, and tachycardia.
Body as a Whole: Infection, back pain*, flu syndrome*, fever, chills, and neck pain.
Dermatologic: Photosensitivity and pruritus.
Gastrointestinal: Gastroenteritis, flatulence, and tooth disorder.
Neurologic and Psychiatric: Hypesthesia, abnormal vision, abnormal dreams, and retinal disorder.
Respiratory: Upper respiratory infection*, epistaxis, bronchitis, rhinitis*, sinusitis*, and voice alteration.
Other: Conjunctivitis, arthritis, urinary tract infection, alopecia, and urinary frequency*.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: See WARNINGS, Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality.
Monotherapy with benazepril has been evaluated for safety in over 6000 patients. In clinical trials, the observed adverse reactions to benazepril were similar to those seen in trials of Lotensin HCT. In post-marketing experience with benazepril, there have been rare reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, pemphigus, and thrombo-cytopenia. Another potentially important adverse experience, eosinophilic pneumonitis, has been attributed to other ACE inhibitors. Hydrochlorothiazide has been extensively prescribed for many years, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of the frequency of the observed adverse reactions. Within organ-system groups, the reported reactions are listed here in decreasing order of severity, without regard to frequency.
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics).
Digestive: Pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic) (see WARNINGS), sialadenitis, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping, nausea, gastric irritation, constipation, and anorexia.
Neurologic: Vertigo, lightheadedness, transient blurred vision, headache, paresthesia, xanthopsia, weakness, and restlessness.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm.
Hematologic: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.
Metabolic: Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and hyperuricemia.
Hypersensitivity: Necrotizing angiitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, respiratory distress (including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema), purpura, urticaria, rash, and photosensitivity.
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Serum Electrolytes: See PRECAUTIONS.
Creatinine: Minor reversible increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients with essential hypertension treated with Lotensin HCT. Such increases occurred most frequently in patients with renal artery stenosis (see PRECAUTIONS).
PBI and Tests of Parathyroid Function: See PRECAUTIONS .
Other ( Causal Relationships Unknown ) : Other clinically important changes in standard laboratory tests were rarely associated with Lotensin HCT administration. Elevations in blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, SGOT, and SGPT have been reported (see WARNINGS). In the somewhat larger patient population exposed to benazepril monotherapy in U.S. trials, the same abnormalities were reported, together with scattered accounts of hyponatremia, melena, electrocardiographic changes, leukopenia, eosinophilia, and proteinuria.