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Lopid (Gemfibrozil) - Summary



LOPIDŽ (gemfibrozil tablets, USP) is a lipid regulating agent. It is available as tablets for oral administration. Each tablet contains 600 mg gemfibrozil.

LOPID (gemfibrozil tablets, USP) is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for:

  1. Treatment of adult patients with very high elevations of serum triglyceride levels (Types IV and V hyperlipidemia) who present a risk of pancreatitis and who do not respond adequately to a determined dietary effort to control them. Patients who present such risk typically have serum triglycerides over 2000 mg/dL and have elevations of VLDL-cholesterol as well as fasting chylomicrons (Type V hyperlipidemia). Subjects who consistently have total serum or plasma triglycerides below 1000 mg/dL are unlikely to present a risk of pancreatitis. LOPID therapy may be considered for those subjects with triglyceride elevations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL who have a history of pancreatitis or of recurrent abdominal pain typical of pancreatitis. It is recognized that some Type IV patients with triglycerides under 1000 mg/dL may, through dietary or alcoholic indiscretion, convert to a Type V pattern with massive triglyceride elevations accompanying fasting chylomicronemia, but the influence of LOPID therapy on the risk of pancreatitis in such situations has not been adequately studied. Drug therapy is not indicated for patients with Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, who have elevations of chylomicrons and plasma triglycerides, but who have normal levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Inspection of plasma refrigerated for 14 hours is helpful in distinguishing Types I, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemia (ref. 5).
  2. Reducing the risk of developing coronary heart disease only in Type IIb patients without history of or symptoms of existing coronary heart disease who have had an inadequate response to weight loss, dietary therapy, exercise, and other pharmacologic agents (such as bile acid sequestrants and nicotinic acid, known to reduce LDL- and raise HDL-cholesterol) and who have the following triad of lipid abnormalities: low HDL-cholesterol levels in addition to elevated LDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). The National Cholesterol Education Program has defined a serum HDL-cholesterol value that is consistently below 35 mg/dL as constituting an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (ref. 6). Patients with significantly elevated triglycerides should be closely observed when treated with gemfibrozil. In some patients with high triglyceride levels, treatment with gemfibrozil is associated with a significant increase in LDL-cholesterol. BECAUSE OF POTENTIAL TOXICITY SUCH AS MALIGNANCY, GALLBLADDER DISEASE, ABDOMINAL PAIN LEADING TO APPENDECTOMY AND OTHER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES, AN INCREASED INCIDENCE IN NON-CORONARY MORTALITY, AND THE 44% RELATIVE INCREASE DURING THE TRIAL PERIOD IN AGE-ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY SEEN WITH THE CHEMICALLY AND PHARMACOLOGICALLY RELATED DRUG, CLOFIBRATE, THE POTENTIAL BENEFIT OF GEMFIBROZIL IN TREATING TYPE IIA PATIENTS WITH ELEVATIONS OF LDL-CHOLESTEROL ONLY IS NOT LIKELY TO OUTWEIGH THE RISKS. LOPID IS ALSO NOT INDICATED FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH LOW HDL-CHOLESTEROL AS THEIR ONLY LIPID ABNORMALITY.

In a subgroup analysis of patients in the Helsinki Heart Study with above-median HDL-cholesterol values at baseline (greater than 46.4 mg/dL), the incidence of serious coronary events was similar for gemfibrozil and placebo subgroups (see Table I).

The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcohol intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be managed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure, and has been associated with rises in HDL-cholesterol. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy is sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of estrogen therapy may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia. The use of drugs should be considered only when reasonable attempts have been made to obtain satisfactory results with nondrug methods. If the decision is made to use drugs, the patient should be instructed that this does not reduce the importance of adhering to diet.

See all Lopid indications & dosage >>


Published Studies Related to Lopid (Gemfibrozil)

The effect of gemfibrozil, niacin and cholestyramine combination therapy on metabolic syndrome in the Armed Forces Regression Study. [2011.05]
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events independent of overt diabetes. Dietary restriction and weight loss modify metabolic syndrome components. This study addresses whether combination pharmacologic therapy focused on dyslipidemia provides additional benefit... CONCLUSIONS: The combination of gemfibrozil, niacin and cholestyramine has profound, beneficial effects on the components of metabolic syndrome. These benefits are additive to those seen with aggressive diet and lifestyle modification.

Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil occurs rapidly in humans. [2011.04]
To study the time to onset of mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 by gemfibrozil in vivo, we conducted a randomized five-phase crossover study in 10 healthy volunteers.The strong inactivation of CYP2C8, evident as soon as 1 h after gemfibrozil dosing, has implications in clinical practice and in studies with gemfibrozil as a CYP2C8 model inhibitor.

Effect of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. [2011.03]
Coadministration of statins and fibrates is beneficial in some patients by allowing simultaneous reduction of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol alongside elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the potential for drug interactions must be taken into consideration.

The CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil does not affect the pharmacokinetics of zafirlukast. [2011.02]
PURPOSE: Gemfibrozil, a strong inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 in vivo, was recently found to markedly increase the plasma concentrations of montelukast in humans. Like montelukast, zafirlukast is a substrate of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and a potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vitro. To investigate the contribution of CYP2C8 to the metabolism of zafirlukast in vivo, we studied the effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics of zafirlukast... CONCLUSIONS: Gemfibrozil has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of zafirlukast, indicating that CYP2C8 does not play a significant role in the elimination of zafirlukast.

The effect of gemfibrozil, niacin and cholestyramine combination therapy on metabolic syndrome in the Armed Forces Regression Study. [2011]
pharmacologic therapy focused on dyslipidemia provides additional benefit... CONCLUSIONS: The combination of gemfibrozil, niacin and cholestyramine has

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Clinical Trials Related to Lopid (Gemfibrozil)

Drug Interaction Study of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Gemfibrozil [Completed]
This study will determine whether the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ ritonavir (Kaletra (Trademark)), which is used to treat HIV disease, lowers blood levels of the lipid-regulating drug gemfibrozil (Lopid (Trademark)) in HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Many patients with HIV infection who take protease inhibitors have abnormally high lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides). Gemfibrozil, commonly used to treat high triglycerides, often is not effective in HIV-infected patients taking protease inhibitors, possibly because of an interaction between the two medicines that causes a lowering of gemfibrozil's levels in the blood. Results from this study will give researchers information on whether lopinavir/ ritonavir affects the blood levels of gemfibrozil. Healthy, normal volunteers between 18 and 65 years old who test negative for HIV may be eligible for this study. On study day 1, subjects have a blood sample drawn from a catheter inserted into a vein in the arm to determine pre-dosing blood levels of gemfibrozil. They then take a gemfibrozil tablet and are given breakfast 30 minutes after taking the drug. Blood samples are obtained through the catheter at 0, 1, 1. 5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after dosing to determine gemfibrozil levels at those intervals. At the end of 12 hours, the catheter is removed and the subject is discharged from the clinic. The next morning subjects return to the clinic for another blood sample, collected through a vein in the arm. Subjects begin taking lopinavir/ ritonavir between 7 and 35 days after their first dose, depending on their schedule and the clinic schedule. On the fourteenth day of dosing subjects come to the clinic and are given a single dose of gemfibrozil, as on study day 1, and have breakfast 30 minutes later. Blood samples are collected to determine gemfibrozil levels just like on study days 1 and 2. An additional sample is collected for routine lab tests.

Initial Screening of Gemfibrozil as a Novel Treatment for Tobacco Addiction [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gemfibrozil on nicotine reinforcement and cue-elicited craving. Other objectives of this study include screening for the ability of gemfibrozil to aid smoking abstinence during a brief quit attempt and examining the validity of using laboratory measures of tobacco dependence to predict smoking abstinence. It is hypothesized that gemfibrozil will result in diminished nicotine reinforcement, an attenuated response to smoking cues, and an increase in smoking abstinence compared with placebo. It is also hypothesized that the laboratory measures will prove valid in predicting abstinence.

To Evaluate the Effect of Gemfibrozil on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a Single Dose of AZD1656 [Completed]

Effect of Gemfibrozil on the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Red Yeast Rice in Healthy Subjects [Completed]
Red yeast rice capsule (LipoCol Forte)is a nature product that has been demonstrated a significant cholesterol lowering effect which might be caused by addictive and/or synergistic effects of lovastatin (monacolin K) with other monacolins and substances in capsules. The usual dose of red yeast rice capsule(LipoCol Forte)for hypercholesterolemia is one capsule twice/day. Gemfibrozil is a fibric acid derivative (fibrate). It can reduce the levels of triglycerides and increase the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Patients with mixed lipid disorders may therefore benefit from a combination of a statin and a fibrate. Although the combination of a fibrate and a statin is highly effective,concerns about an increased incidence of myopathy and even rhabdomyolysis have limited the widespread use of such combinations. Such combination therapies are prone to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to altered pharmacokinetic profiles of either drug, an effect observed for many statins in combination with fibrates. However, the drug-drug interactions have not been reported between red yeast rice capsule and gemfibrozil. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of gemfibrozil on the plasma concentrations of lovastatin and its active form, lovastatin acid, from red yeast rice capsule in healthy volunteers. In addition, the investigators also measure the plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK) and co-enzyme Q10 for safety assessment.

Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Mitiglinide and Gemfibrozil [Completed]

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Reports of Suspected Lopid (Gemfibrozil) Side Effects

Weight Decreased (10)Contusion (10)Blood Triglycerides Increased (10)Dizziness (9)Drug Hypersensitivity (9)Diarrhoea (9)Abdominal Discomfort (8)Hepatitis (7)Intracranial Aneurysm (7)Malaise (6)more >>

Page last updated: 2013-02-10

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