Constant monitoring with an electrocardiograph is essential to the proper administration of lidocaine hydrochloride intravenously. Signs of excessive depression of cardiac conductivity, such as prolongation of the PR interval, widening of the QRS interval or the appearance or aggravation of arrhythmias, should be followed by prompt cessation of the intravenous infusion of this agent. It is mandatory to have emergency resuscitative equipment and drugs immediately available to manage adverse reactions involving cardiovascular, respiratory, or central nervous systems. Occasional acceleration of ventricular rate may occur when lidocaine hydrochloride is administered to patients with atrial fibrillation. Evidence for proper usage in pediatric patients is limited.
Because dosages of this drug are titrated to response (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), no additives should be made to Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USP.
Caution should be employed in the repeated use of lidocaine hydrochloride in patients with severe liver or renal disease because accumulation may occur and lead to toxic phenomena, since lidocaine hydrochloride is metabolized mainly in the liver and excreted by the kidneys. The drug should also be used with caution in patients with hypovolemia and shock, and in all forms of heart block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).
In patients with sinus bradycardia or incomplete heart block, the administration of lidocaine hydrochloride intravenously for the elimination of ventricular ectopic beats without prior acceleration in heart rate (e.g., by isoproterenol or by electric pacing) may promote more frequent and serious ventricular arrhythmias or complete heart block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Most potent anesthetic agents, local anesthetics of the amide type which includes lidocaine, and muscle relaxants of both depolarizing and nondepolarizing types have been associated with malignant hyperthermia.
Care should be taken in the administration of intravenous fluids in patients with compromised myocardial function to avoid fluid overload or disturbances of serum electrolyte concentrations which might interfere with cardiac conduction or result in congestive heart failure.
Do not use plastic container in series connection.
If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result.
These solutions are intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment. It is recommended that intravenous administration apparatus be replaced at least once every 24 hours.
Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation.
Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients with digitalis toxicity accompanied by atrioventricular block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Coadministration of propranolol or cimetidine with lidocaine has been reported to reduce clearance from the plasma and may result in toxic accumulation of the drug (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
When lidocaine is administered with other antiarrhythmic drugs such as phenytoin, procainamide, propranolol, amiodarone, or quinidine, the cardiac effects may be additive or antagonistic and toxic effects may be additive. Phenytoin may stimulate the hepatic metabolism of lidocaine, but the clinical significance of this effect is not known.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential of lidocaine; nor have studies been conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of lidocaine or its potential to affect fertility.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 5 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to lidocaine hydrochloride. There are, however, no adequate well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USP is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine has not been established in pediatric patients (neonates to adolescents). (See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Lidocaine is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).