LETAIRIS (ambrisentan) tablets for oral use
LETAIRIS is the brand name for ambrisentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist that is selective for the endothelin type-A (ETA) receptor. The chemical name of ambrisentan is (+)-(2 S)-2-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)oxy]-3-methoxy-3,3-diphenylpropanoic acid. It has a molecular formula of C22H22N2O4 and a molecular weight of 378.42. It contains a single chiral center determined to be the (S) configuration and has the following structural formula:
Figure 1 Ambrisentan Structural Formula
Ambrisentan is a white to off-white, crystalline solid. It is a carboxylic acid with a pKa of 4.0. Ambrisentan is practically insoluble in water and in aqueous solutions at low pH. Solubility increases in aqueous solutions at higher pH. In the solid state ambrisentan is very stable, is not hygroscopic, and is not light sensitive.
LETAIRIS is available as 5 mg and 10 mg film-coated tablets for once-daily oral administration. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing FD&C Red #40 aluminum lake, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide. Each square, pale pink LETAIRIS tablet contains 5 mg of ambrisentan. Each oval, deep pink LETAIRIS tablet contains 10 mg of ambrisentan. LETAIRIS tablets are unscored.
Mechanism of Action
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent autocrine and paracrine peptide. Two receptor subtypes, ETA and ETB, mediate the effects of ET-1 in the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. The primary actions of ETA are vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, while the predominant actions of ETB are vasodilation, antiproliferation, and ET-1 clearance.
In patients with PAH, plasma ET-1 concentrations are increased as much as 10-fold and correlate with increased mean right atrial pressure and disease severity. ET-1 and ET-1 mRNA concentrations are increased as much as 9-fold in the lung tissue of patients with PAH, primarily in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that ET-1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of PAH.
Ambrisentan is a high affinity (Ki=0.011 nM) ETA receptor antagonist with a high selectivity for the ETA versus ETB receptor (>4000-fold). The clinical impact of high selectivity for ETA is not known.
In a randomized, positive- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, healthy subjects received either LETAIRIS 10 mg daily followed by a single dose of 40 mg, placebo followed by a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg, or placebo alone. LETAIRIS 10 mg daily had no significant effect on the QTc interval. The 40 mg dose of LETAIRIS increased mean QTc at tmax by 5 ms with an upper 95% confidence limit of 9 ms. For patients receiving LETAIRIS 5-10 mg daily and not taking metabolic inhibitors, no significant QT prolongation is expected.
The absolute bioavailability of ambrisentan is not known. Ambrisentan is rapidly absorbed with peak concentrations occurring approximately 2 hours after oral administration in healthy subjects and PAH patients. Food does not affect its bioavailability. In vitro studies indicate that ambrisentan is a substrate of P-gp. Ambrisentan is highly bound to plasma proteins (99%). The elimination of ambrisentan is predominantly by non-renal pathways, but the relative contributions of metabolism and biliary elimination have not been well characterized. Based on in vitro data, interactions with strong inhibitors of P glycoprotein (P-gp), the Organic Anion Transport Protein (OATP), CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and uridine 5' diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are possible [see Drug Interactions (7)]. The mean oral clearance of ambrisentan is 38 mL/min and 19 mL/min in healthy subjects and in PAH patients, respectively. Although ambrisentan has a 15-hour terminal half-life, the mean trough concentration of ambrisentan at steady-state is about 15% of the mean peak concentration and the accumulation factor is about 1.2 after long-term daily dosing, indicating that the effective half-life of ambrisentan is about 9 hours.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Oral carcinogenicity studies of up to two years duration were conducted at starting doses of 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day in rats (8 to 48 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) and at 50, 150 and 250 mg/kg/day in mice (28 to 140 times the MRHD). In the rat study, the high and mid-dose male and female groups had their doses lowered to 40 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively, in week 51 because of effects on survival. The high dose males and females were taken off drug completely in weeks 69 and 93, respectively. The only evidence of ambrisentan-related carcinogenicity was a positive trend in male rats, for the combined incidence of benign basal cell tumor and basal cell carcinoma of skin/subcutis in the mid-dose group (high-dose group excluded from analysis), and the occurrence of mammary fibroadenomas in males in the high-dose group. In the mouse study, high dose male and female groups had their doses lowered to 150 mg/kg/day in week 39 and were taken off drug completely in week 96 (males) or week 76 (females). In mice, ambrisentan was not associated with excess tumors in any dosed group.
Positive findings of clastogenicity were detected, at drug concentrations producing moderate to high toxicity, in the chromosome aberration assay in cultured human lymphocytes. There was no evidence for genetic toxicity of ambrisentan when tested in vitro in bacteria (Ames test) or in vivo in rats (micronucleus assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis assay).
The development of testicular tubular atrophy and impaired fertility has been linked to the chronic administration of endothelin receptor antagonists in rodents. Testicular tubular degeneration was observed in rats treated with ambrisentan for two years at doses ≥10 mg/kg/day (8-fold MRHD). Increased incidences of testicular findings were also observed in mice treated for two years at doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (28-fold MRHD). Effects on sperm count, sperm morphology, mating performance and fertility were observed in fertility studies in which male rats were treated with ambrisentan at oral doses of 300 mg/kg/day (236-fold MRHD). At doses of ≥10 mg/kg/day, observations of testicular histopathology in the absence of fertility and sperm effects were also present. There are insufficient data on the effects of ambrisentan or other endothelin receptor antagonists on testicular function in man.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)
Two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies were conducted in 393 patients with PAH (WHO Group 1). The two studies were identical in design except for the doses of LETAIRIS and the geographic region of the investigational sites. ARIES-1 compared once-daily doses of 5 mg and 10 mg LETAIRIS to placebo, while ARIES-2 compared once-daily doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg LETAIRIS to placebo. In both studies, LETAIRIS or placebo was added to current therapy, which could have included a combination of anticoagulants, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, or digoxin, but not epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost, bosentan, or sildenafil. The primary study endpoint was 6-minute walk distance. In addition, clinical worsening, WHO functional class, dyspnea, and SF-36® Health Survey were assessed.
Patients had idiopathic PAH (64%) or PAH associated with connective tissue disease (32%), HIV infection (3%), or anorexigen use (1%). There were no patients with PAH associated with congenital heart disease.
Patients had WHO functional class I (2%), II (38%), III (55%), or IV (5%) symptoms at baseline. The mean age of patients was 50 years, 79% of patients were female, and 77% were Caucasian.
Submaximal Exercise Capacity
Results of the 6-minute walk distance at 12 weeks for the ARIES-1 and ARIES-2 studies are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2.
Table 2 Changes from Baseline in 6-Minute Walk Distance (meters)
Mean ± standard deviation
† p-values are Wilcoxon rank sum test comparisons of LETAIRIS to placebo at Week 12 stratified by idiopathic PAH and non-idiopathic PAH patients
| ARIES-1 || ARIES-2 |
| 5 mg|
| 10 mg|
| 2.5 mg|
| 5 mg|
|Baseline||342 ± 73||340± 77||342 ± 78||343 ± 86||347± 84||355 ± 84|
|Mean change from baseline||-8 ± 79||23 ± 83||44 ± 63||-10 ± 94||22 ± 83||49 ± 75|
|Placebo-adjusted mean change from baseline||31||51||32||59|
|Placebo-adjusted median change from baseline||27||39||30||45|
Figure 2 Mean Change in 6-minute Walk Distance
In both studies, treatment with LETAIRIS resulted in a significant improvement in 6-minute walk distance for each dose of LETAIRIS and the improvements increased with dose. An increase in 6-minute walk distance was observed after 4 weeks of treatment with LETAIRIS, with a dose-response observed after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvements in walk distance with LETAIRIS were smaller for elderly patients (age ≥65) than younger patients and for patients with secondary PAH than for patients with idiopathic PAH. The results of such subgroup analyses must be interpreted cautiously.
The effects of LETAIRIS on walk distances at trough drug levels are not known. Because only once daily dosing was studied in the clinical trials, the efficacy and safety of more frequent dosing regimens for LETAIRIS are not known. If exercise capacity is not sustained throughout the day in a patient, consider other PAH treatments that have been studied with more frequent dosing regimens.
Time to clinical worsening of PAH was defined as the first occurrence of death, lung transplantation, hospitalization for PAH, atrial septostomy, study withdrawal due to the addition of other PAH therapeutic agents or study withdrawal due to early escape. Early escape was defined as meeting two or more of the following criteria: a 20% decrease in the 6-minute walk distance; an increase in WHO functional class; worsening right ventricular failure; rapidly progressing cardiogenic, hepatic, or renal failure; or refractory systolic hypotension. The clinical worsening events during the 12-week treatment period of the LETAIRIS clinical trials are shown in Table 3 and Figure 3.
Table 3 Time to Clinical Worsening
Note: Patients may have had more than one reason for clinical worsening.
| ARIES-1 || ARIES-2 |
| Placebo |
| LETAIRIS |
| Placebo |
| LETAIRIS |
|Clinical worsening, no. (%)||7 (10%)||4 (3%)||13 (22%)||8 (6%)|
|p-value, Fisher exact test||0.044||0.006|
|p-value, Log-rank test||0.030||0.005|
There was a significant delay in the time to clinical worsening for patients receiving LETAIRIS compared to placebo. Results in subgroups such as the elderly were also favorable.
Figure 3 Time to Clinical Worsening
Long-Term Treatment of PAH
The long - term follow - up of the patients who were treated with LETAIRIS in the two pivotal studies and their open - label extension (N=383) shows that 95% were still alive at one year and 94% were still receiving LETAIRIS monotherapy. These uncontrolled observations do not allow comparison with a group not given LETAIRIS and cannot be used to determine the long-term effect of LETAIRIS.
Use in Patients with Prior Endothelin Receptor Antagonist (ERA) Related Liver Function Abnormalities
In an uncontrolled, open - label study, 36 patients who had previously discontinued endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs: bosentan, an investigational drug, or both) due to aminotransferase elevations >3 x upper limit of normal (ULN) were treated with LETAIRIS. Prior elevations were predominantly moderate, with 64% of the ALT elevations <5 x ULN, but 9 patients had elevations >8 x ULN. Eight patients had been re-challenged with bosentan and/or the investigational ERA and all eight had a recurrence of aminotransferase abnormalities that required discontinuation of ERA therapy. All patients had to have normal aminotransferase levels on entry to this study. Twenty-five of the 36 patients were also receiving prostanoid and/or phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor therapy. Two patients discontinued early (including one of the patients with a prior 8 x ULN elevation). Of the remaining 34 patients, one patient experienced a mild aminotransferase elevation at 12 weeks on LETAIRIS 5 mg that resolved with decreasing the dosage to 2.5 mg, and that did not recur with later escalations to 10 mg. With a median follow-up of 13 months and with 50% of patients increasing the dose of LETAIRIS to 10 mg, no patients were discontinued for aminotransferase elevations. While the uncontrolled study design does not provide information about what would have occurred with re - administration of previously used ERAs or show that LETAIRIS led to fewer aminotransferase elevations than would have been seen with those drugs, the study indicates that LETAIRIS may be tried in patients who have experienced asymptomatic aminotransferase elevations on other ERAs after aminotransferase levels have returned to normal.
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