Ketamine hydrochloride is a nonbarbiturate anesthetic chemically designated (±)-2-(o -Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is formulated as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection in concentrations containing the equivalent of either 50 or 100 mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride added as a preservative.
Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures.
Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents.
Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide.
Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section.
Media Articles Related to Ketamine
Patients With Sleep Apnea Undergoing Joint Replacement Have Improved Outcomes With Regional Anesthesia
Source: Arthritis / Rheumatology News From Medical News Today [2013.05.07]
Using regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia in patients with sleep apnea undergoing total joint replacement decreases major complications by 17%, according to a study published online, ahead of print, in the journal Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine...
Lower Rates Of Complications In Hip And Knee Replacement Using Regional Anesthesia Technique
Source: Arthritis / Rheumatology News From Medical News Today [2013.05.03]
A highly underutilized anesthesia technique called neuraxial anesthesia, also known as spinal or epidural anesthesia, improves outcomes in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement, according to a new study by researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery...
General Anesthesia Not Linked to Raised Risk for Dementia
Source: MedicineNet Dementia Specialty [2013.05.02]
Title: General Anesthesia Not Linked to Raised Risk for Dementia
Category: Health News
Created: 5/1/2013 12:35:00 PM
Last Editorial Review: 5/2/2013 12:00:00 AM
Success Rates Of Turning Breech Babies Increased By Anesthesia, Delivery Costs Reduced
Source: Pain / Anesthetics News From Medical News Today [2013.04.22]
When a baby is in the breech position at the end of pregnancy, obstetricians can sometimes turn the baby head-down to enable a safer vaginal birth. In the past, women were not given anesthesia during the turning procedure, which requires the physician to push on the woman's abdomen while monitoring the baby with ultrasound...
Development Of Wisdom Teeth In Children May Be Affected By Dental Anesthesia
Source: Dentistry News From Medical News Today [2013.04.05]
Researchers from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine have discovered a statistical association between the injection of local dental anesthesia given to children ages two to six and evidence of missing lower wisdom teeth...
Published Studies Related to Ketamine
Comparison of peritonsillar infiltration effects of ketamine and tramadol on post
tonsillectomy pain: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical
on post tonsillectomy pain and compare the side effects... CONCLUSION: Preoperative peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol can decrease
Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine
anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a
prospective, randomised clinical trial. 
One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under
midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded,
randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia
produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per
Analgesic effects of ketamine infusion on postoperative pain after fusion and
instrumentation of the lumbar spine: a prospective randomized clinical trial. 
administration on postoperative pain... CONCLUSION: Ketamine could be a good alternative analgesic after fusion of lumbar
Ketofol (mixture of ketamine and propofol) administration in electroconvulsive
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a ketamine:propofol
combination ('ketofol') for electroconvulsive therapy on seizure activity,
haemodynamic response and recovery parameters, and to compare with these with the
effects of propofol alone...
Ketamine as a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent in children undergoing
surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass: a pilot randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial. 
bypass... CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any evidence for neuroprotection or neurotoxicity in
Clinical Trials Related to Ketamine
Ketamine on Acute Pain in Females and Males [Completed]
The purpose of the study is to determine whether equal subanesthetic doses of racemic
ketamine is equally effective on females and males after surgical removal of third molars
Ketamine Improves Post-Thoracotomy Analgesia [Completed]
Thoracotomy for lung tumor or for minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB)
surgery, may be associated with debilitating pain. Ketamine was shown to enhance opioid
antinociception and prevent opioid resistance. We hypothesize that ketamine given with
morphine would lower morphine consumption and narcotic related side effects after thoracotomy
and provide superior analgesia to morphine given alone.
Ketamine Frequency Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder [Enrolling by invitation]
Depression is a wide spread illness. Depression contributes most significantly to national
health care costs. While the number and types of treatments used for depression have expanded
over the years, even with an increased range of options, the response rate, defined as the
number of subjects who have a 50% reduction in depressive symptoms, is estimated to be around
In this pilot study we will assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial
that will examine the frequency of treatment with ketamine in patients with TDR without
psychosis. It will compare two modes of the ketamine treatment; every other day ketamine,
versus two active and four placebo treatments over the period of 12 days.
KETOR: Effects of Peri Operative Administration of Ketamine on Long Term Post Thoracotomy Pain [Completed]
Immunomodulatory Properties of Ketamine in Sepsis [Recruiting]
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of short-term infusion of ketamine at analgesic
dosage on the immune response, morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from septic
shock. We hypothesize that ketamine will modulate the cytokine response to sepsis and reduce
morbidity and mortality.