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Kemadrin (Procyclidine Hydrochloride) - Summary



(procyclidine hydrochloride)

KEMADRIN (procyclidine hydrochloride) is a synthetic antispasmodic compound of relatively low toxicity. It has been shown to be useful for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism (paralysis agitans) and extrapyramidal dysfunction caused by tranquilizer therapy. Procyclidine hydrochloride was developed at The Wellcome Research Laboratories as the most promising of a series of antiparkinsonism compounds produced by chemical modification of antihistamines. Procyclidine hydrochloride is a white crystalline substance which is soluble in water and almost tasteless.

KEMADRIN (procyclidine hydrochloride) is indicated in the treatment of parkinsonism including the postencephalitic, arteriosclerotic, and idiopathic types. Partial control of the parkinsonism symptoms is the usual therapeutic accomplishment. Procyclidine hydrochloride is usually more efficacious in the relief of rigidity than tremor; but tremor, fatigue, weakness, and sluggishness are frequently beneficially influenced. It can be substituted for all the previous medications in mild and moderate cases. For the control of more severe cases, other drugs may be added to procyclidine therapy as indications warrant.

Clinical reports indicate that procyclidine often successfully relieves the symptoms of extrapyramidal dysfunction (dystonia, dyskinesia, akathisia, and parkinsonism) which accompany the therapy of mental disorders with phenothiazine and rauwolfia compounds. In addition to minimizing the symptoms induced by tranquilizing drugs, the drug effectively controls sialorrhea resulting from neuroleptic medication. At the same time, freedom from the side effects induced by tranquilizer drugs, as provided by the administration of procyclidine, permits a more sustained treatment of the patient’s mental disorder.

Clinical results in the treatment of parkinsonism indicate that most patients experience subjective improvement characterized by a feeling of well-being and increased alertness, together with diminished salivation and a marked improvement in muscular coordination as demonstrated by objective tests of manual dexterity and by increased ability to carry out ordinary self-care activities. While the drug exerts a mild atropine-like action and therefore causes mydriasis, this may be kept minimal by careful adjustment of the daily dosage.

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Published Studies Related to Kemadrin (Procyclidine)

Effects of acute procyclidine administration on prepulse inhibition of the startle response in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. [2003.03]
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response refers to a reduction in response to a strong stimulus (pulse) if this is preceded shortly by a weak non-startling stimulus (prepulse). Consistent with theories of deficiencies in early stages of information processing, PPI is found to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia...

Effects of 10 mg and 15 mg oral procyclidine on critical flicker fusion threshold and cardiac functioning in healthy human subjects. [2002.06]
The critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT) is thought to index alertness and cortical arousal. Sedative drugs reduce CFFT while psychostimulants increase it... Further investigations are required to quantify the effects of procyclidine on CFFT and cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia.

Effects of procyclidine on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in healthy human volunteers. [2001.03]
RATIONALE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response refers to an attenuation in response to a strong stimulus (pulse) if this is preceded shortly by a weak non-startling stimulus (prepulse). Patients with schizophrenia have repeatedly been found to show reduced PPI when compared to healthy people. Anticholinergic drugs are often used to control extrapyramidal symptoms induced by antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients. Antipsychotic medication, in particular with atypical drugs, has been shown to improve a range of cognitive functions and normalize PPI deficits in schizophrenia, whereas anticholinergic drugs disrupt cognitive functions in both normal and schizophrenic populations and also impair PPI in experimental animals. No previous study has investigated the effects of anticholinergic drugs on human PPI. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of procyclidine, an anticholinergic drug, on PPI in healthy male volunteers, employing a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design... CONCLUSIONS: PPI of the human acoustic startle response is modulated by procyclidine. The use of anticholinergics needs to be considered in PPI studies in schizophrenia.

Protection by a transdermal patch containing physostigmine and procyclidine of soman poisoning in dogs. [2005.11.21]
The prophylactic efficacy of a combinational patch system containing physostigmine and procyclidine against soman intoxication was evaluated using dogs. Female beagle dogs (body weights 9-10 kg) were shaved on the abdominal side, attached with a matrix-type patch (7x7 cm) containing 1.5% of physostigmine plus 6% procyclidine for 2 days, and challenged with subcutaneous injection of serial doses (2-10 LD50) of soman...

Protection by sustained release of physostigmine and procyclidine of soman poisoning in rats. [2004.11.28]
The efficacy of a combinational prophylactic regimen on the lethality, convulsions, and loss of morphological and functional integrities of the brain induced by an organophosphate soman was investigated in rats. The rats were implanted subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps containing the combinational prophylactic regimen composed of physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, and procyclidine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist possessing anticholinergic action, for 3 days, and intoxicated subcutaneously with soman (160 microg/kg, 1.3 LD50)...

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Page last updated: 2007-05-03

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