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Isoniazid (Isoniazid) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Food
Isoniazid should not be administered with food. Studies have shown that the bioavailability of isoniazid is reduced significantly when administered with food. Tyramine-and histamine-containing foods should be avoided in patients receiving isoniazid. Because isoniazid has some monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity, an interaction with tyramine-containing foods (cheese, red wine) may occur. Diamine oxidase may also be inhibited, causing exaggerated response (e.g., headache, sweating, palpitations, flushing, hypotension) to foods containing histamine (e.g., skipjack, tuna, other tropical fish).

Acetaminophen
a report of severe acetaminophen toxicity was reported in a patient receiving Isoniazid. It is believed that the toxicity may have resulted from a previously unrecognized interaction between isoniazid and acetaminophen and a molecular basis for this interaction has been proposed. However, current evidence suggests that isoniazid does induce P-450IIE1, a mixed-function oxidase enzyme that appears to generate the toxic metabolites, in the liver. Furthermore it has been proposed that isoniazid resulted in induction of P-450IIE1 in the patient's liver which, in turn, resulted in a greater proportion of the ingested acetaminophen being converted to the toxic metabolites. Studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with isoniazid potentiates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in rats1,2.

Carbamazepine
Isoniazid is known to slow the metabolism of carbamazepine and increase its serum levels. Carbamazepine levels should be determined prior to concurrent administration with isoniazid, signs and symptoms of carbamazepine toxicity should be monitored closely and appropriate dosage adjustment of the anticonvulsant should be made3.

Ketoconazole
Potential interaction of Ketoconazole and Isoniazid may exist. When Ketoconazole is given in combination with isoniazid and rifampin the AUC of ketoconazole is decreased by as much as 88% after 5 months of concurrent Isoniazid and Rifampin therapy4.

Phenytoin
Isoniazid may increase serum levels of phenytoin. To avoid phenytoin intoxication, appropriate adjustment of the anticonvulsant should be made5,6.

Theophylline
A recent study has shown that concomitant administration of isoniazid and theophylline may cause elevated plasma levels of theophylline and in some instances a slight decrease in the elimination of isoniazid. Since the therapeutic range of theophylline is narrow, theophylline serum levels should be monitored closely and appropriate dosage adjustments of theophylline should be made7.

Valproate
A recent case study has shown a possible increase in the plasma level of valproate when co-administered with isoniazid. Plasma valproate concentration should be monitored when isoniazid and valproate are co-administered and appropriate dosage adjustments of valproate should be made5.

OVERDOSAGE

Signs and Symptoms
Isoniazid overdosage produces signs and symptoms within 30 minutes to 3 hours after ingestion. Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, slurring of speech, blurring of vision and visual hallucinations (including bright colors and strange designs) are among the early manifestations. With marked overdosage, respiratory distress and CNS depression, progressing rapidly from stupor to profound coma, are to be expected, along with severe, intractable seizures. Severe metabolic acidosis, acetonuria and hyperglycemia are typical laboratory findings.

Treatment
Untreated or inadequately treated cases of gross isoniazid overdosage, 80 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg, can cause neurotoxicity6 and terminate fatally, but good response has been reported in most patients brought under adequate treatment within the first few hours after drug ingestion.

For the Asymptomatic Patient
Absorption of drugs from the GI tract may be decreased by giving activated charcoal. Gastric emptying should also be employed in the asymptomatic patient. Safeguard the patient's airway when employing these procedures. Patients who acutely ingest > 80 mg/kg should be treated with intravenous pyridoxine on a gram per gram basis equal to the isoniazid dose. If an unknown amount of isoniazid is ingested, consider an initial dose of 5 grams of pyridoxine given over 30 to 60 minutes in adults or 80 mg/kg of pyridoxine in children.

For the Symptomatic Patient
Ensure adequate ventilation, support cardiac output and protect the airway while treating seizures and attempting to limit absorption. If the dose of isoniazid is known, the patient should be treated initially with a slow intravenous bolus of pyridoxine, over 3 to 5 minutes, on a gram per gram basis, equal to the isoniazid dose. If the quantity of isoniazid ingestion is unknown, then consider an initial intravenous bolus of pyridoxine of 5 grams in the adult or 80 mg/kg in the child. If seizures continue, the dosage of pyridoxine may be repeated. It would be rare that more than 10 grams of pyridoxine would need to be given. The maximum safe dose for pyridoxine in isoniazid intoxication is not known. If the patient does not respond to pyridoxine, diazepam may be administered. Phenytoin should be used cautiously, because isoniazid interferes with the metabolism of phenytoin.

General


Rapid Control of Metabolic Acidosis
Patients with this degree of INH intoxication are likely to have hypoventilation. The administration of sodium bicarbonate under these circumstances can cause exacerbation of hypercarbia. Ventilation must be monitored carefully, by measuring blood carbon dioxide levels and supported mechanically, if there is respiratory insufficiency.

Dialysis
Both peritoneal and hemodialysis have been used in the management of isoniazid overdosage. These procedures are probably not required if control of seizures and acidosis is achieved with pyridoxine, diazepam and bicarbonate.
Along with measures based on initial and repeated determination of blood gases and other laboratory tests as needed, utilize meticulous respiratory and other intensive care to protect against hypoxia, hypotension, aspiration, pneumonitis, etc.

CONTRAINDICATIONS



REFERENCES


     2. Burke, R.F., et al: Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol; 1990: July; vol. 69: 115-118.
     3. Fleenor, M. F., et al: Chest (United States) Letter; 1991; June; 99 (6): 1554.
     4. Baciewicz, A.M. and Baciewicz, Jr. F.A.: Arch Int Med 1993: September; volume 153: 1970-1971.
     5. Jonviller, A.P., et al:European Journal of Clinical Pharmacol (Germany), 1991: 40 (2) p198.
     6. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control: Treatment of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children. Amer. J. Respir Crit Care Med.1994;149: p1359-1374.
     7. Hoglund P., et al: European Journal of Respir Dis (Denmark) 1987: February; 70 (2) p110-116.
     8. Committee on infectious Diseases American Academy of Pediatrics:1994, Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases; 23 edition; p487.
     9. Schraufnagel, DE; Testing for Isoniazid; Chest (United States) 1990: August; 98 (2) p314-316.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sandoz Inc. at 1-800-525-8747 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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