1. ESTROGENS HAVE BEEN REPORTED TO INCREASE THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.
Close clinical surveillance of all women taking estrogens is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that "natural" estrogens are more or less hazardous than "synthetic" estrogens at equiestrogenic doses.
2. ESTROGEN SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING PREGNANCY.
There is no indication for estrogen therapy during pregnancy or during the immediate postpartum period. Estrogens are ineffective for the prevention or treatment of threatened or habitual abortion. Estrogens are not indicated for the prevention of postpartum breast engorgement.
Estrogen therapy during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital defects in the reproductive organs of the fetus, and possibly other birth defects. Studies of women who received diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy have shown that female offspring have an increased risk of vaginal adenosis, squamous cell dysplasia of the uterine cervix, and clear cell vaginal cancer later in life; male offspring have an increased risk of urogenital abnormalities and possibly testicular cancer later in life. The 1985 DES Task Force concluded that use of DES during pregnancy is associated with a subsequent increased risk of breast cancer in the mothers, although a causal relationship remains unproven and the observed level of excess risk is similar to that for a number of other breast cancer risk factors.
Innofem™ (Estradiol Tablets, USP) for oral administration contains 0.5, 1 or 2 mg of micronized estradiol per tablet.
Innofem™ (Estradiol Tablets, USP) is indicated in the:
- Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the menopause. There is no adequate evidence that estrogens are effective for nervous symptoms or depression which might occur during menopause and they should not be used to treat these conditions.
- Treatment of vulval and vaginal atrophy.
- Treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure.
- Treatment of breast cancer (for palliation only) in appropriately selected women and men with metastatic disease.
- Treatment of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate (for palliation only).
- Prevention of osteoporosis.
Since estrogen administration is associated with risk, selection of patients should ideally be based on prospective identification of risk factors for developing osteoporosis. Unfortunately, there is no certain way to identify those women who will develop osteoporotic fractures. Most prospective studies of efficacy for this indication have been carried out in white menopausal women, without stratification by other risk factors, and tend to show a universally salutary effect on bone. Thus, patient selection must be individualized based on the balance of risks and benefits. A more favorable risk/benefit ratio exists in a hysterectomized woman because she has no risk of endometrial cancer (see BOXED WARNINGS).
Estrogen replacement therapy reduces bone resorption and retards or halts post menopausal bone loss. Case-control studies have shown an approximately 60 percent reduction in hip and wrist fractures in women whose estrogen replacement was begun within a few years of menopause. Studies also suggest that estrogen reduces the rate of vertebral fractures. Even when started as late as 6 years after menopause, estrogen prevents further loss of bone mass for as long as the treatment is continued. The results of a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study have shown that treatment with 0.5 mg estradiol daily for 23 days (of a 28 day cycle) prevents vertebral bone mass loss in postmenopausal women. When estrogen therapy is discontinued, bone mass declines at a rate comparable to the immediate postmenopausal period. There is no evidence that estrogen replacement therapy restores bone mass to premenopausal levels.
At skeletal maturity there are sex and race differences in both the total amount of bone present and its density, in favor of men and blacks. Thus, women are at higher risk than men because they start with less bone mass and, for several years following natural or induced menopause, the rate of bone mass decline is accelerated. White and Asian women are at higher risk than black women.
Early menopause is one of the strongest predictors for the development of osteoporosis. In addition, other factors affecting the skeleton which are associated with osteoporosis include genetic factors (small build, family history), and endocrine factors (nulliparity, thyrotoxicosis, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, Type 1 diabetes), lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, sedentary exercise habits) and nutrition (below average body weight, dietary calcium intake).
The mainstays of prevention and management of osteoporosis are estrogen, an adequate lifetime calcium intake, and exercise. Postmenopausal women absorb dietary calcium less efficiently than premenopausal women and require an average of 1500 mg/day of elemental calcium to remain in neutral calcium balance. By comparison, premenopausal women require about 1000 mg/day and the average of calcium intake in the USA is 400-600 mg/day, therefore, when not contraindicated, calcium supplementation may be helpful.
Weight-bearing exercise and nutrition may be important adjuncts to the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Immobilization and prolonged bed rest produce rapid bone loss, while weight-bearing exercise has been shown both to reduce bone loss and to increase bone mass. The optimal type and amount of physical activity that would prevent osteoporosis have not been established, however in two studies an hour of walking and running exercise twice or three times weekly significantly increased lumbar spine bone mass.
Media Articles Related to Innofem (Estradiol)
New Innovative Combined Oral Contraceptive Launched In The UK
Source: Sexual Health / STDs News From Medical News Today [2013.05.30]
Zoely ® (nomegestrol acetate/17beta-estradiol) - new combined oral contraceptive that contains an innovative combination of hormones launches in the UK MSD (known as Merck in the United States and Canada) (NYSE:MRK) today announced that Zoely (nomegestrol acetate 2.5 mg/17beta-estradiol 1.5 mg) is now available in the UK for the prevention of pregnancy...
Published Studies Related to Innofem (Estradiol)
Effects of tibolone or continuous combined oestradiol/norethisterone acetate on
glucose and insulin metabolism. 
insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women... CONCLUSIONS: Tibolone reduces insulin sensitivity. Healthy postmenopausal women
An overview of four studies of a continuous oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel 90
mcg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual
and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)... CONCLUSIONS: These data, although not consistent, indicate that continuous LNG/EE
Blastocyst-stage versus cleavage-stage embryo transfer in women with high oestradiol concentrations: randomized controlled trial. [2011.12]
This prospective, randomized, controlled trial tested the hypothesis that delaying embryo transfer to the blastocyst stage can increase the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth in women with high oestradiol concentrations on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the long protocol...
Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics with a low-dose transdermal contraceptive delivery system, AG200-15: a randomized controlled trial. [2011.11.29]
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) pharmacokinetic profiles of AG200-15, a transdermal contraceptive delivery system, compared with a combination oral contraceptive (COC) containing EE 35 mcg and norgestimate 250 mcg... CONCLUSIONS: EE and LNG daily exposure during AG200-15 treatment was within the range reported for a low-dose COC. The daily EE dose with AG 200-15 was equivalent to a 30-mcg COC and was safe and well tolerated. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naproxen or estradiol for bleeding and spotting with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system: a randomized controlled trial. [2011.09.24]
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether oral naproxen or transdermal estradiol decreases bleeding and spotting in women who are initiating the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system... CONCLUSION: The administration of naproxen resulted in a reduction in bleeding and spotting days compared with placebo. Copyright A(c) 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical Trials Related to Innofem (Estradiol)
Vaginal Testosterone Cream vs ESTRING for Vaginal Dryness or Decreased Libido in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients [Recruiting]
The purpose of this clinical research study is to determine whether the ESTRING or a special
preparation of a testosterone cream inserted vaginally are safe for use in breast cancer
patients. This study will also evaluate if either of these treatments can improve symptoms
of vaginal dryness or decreased sexual interest that are related to your treatment for
Effect of Angeliq on Blood Pressure (BP) in Postmenopausal Hypertensive Women [Completed]
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of Angeliq on BP over a period of 8
weeks in postmenopausal women who may benefit from hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the
relief of vasomotor symptoms and who have hypertension.
Serum Estradiol Levels In Postmenopausal Women With Breast Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitors and Vaginal Estrogen [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to see if VagifemŽ 10mcg is safe for women who have had breast
cancer. Vagifem is an estrogen product. It is a tiny tablet that is inserted into the
vagina. It relieves vaginal dryness. Women who have had breast cancer are usually told not
to take estrogen. This is because estrogen use can lead to a breast cancer recurrence or a
new primary breast cancer. It is unclear if the estrogen in Vagifem is only absorbed in the
vagina. It may be absorbed into the blood stream for a short time and may cause a brief rise
in your estrogen level. However, there is no clear evidence that this would cause any bad
effects in patients with breast cancer. How much, if any, of these topical estrogens are
absorbed through the vagina is not known. We also do not know what the impact is of low
dose estrogen absorption on breast cancer outcomes. Also, the absorption should decrease as
the mucus membranes are restored after estrogen exposure.
Effect of Estradiol+Drospirenone Versus Estradiol+MPA on Endothelial Function [Recruiting]
This study compares the effects of two common hormone medications on the heart and blood
vessels of healthy post-menopausal women over the age of 45.
The study will take place over the course of about 5 months. Each subject will take two
different medications over two six-week periods. They will be randomized at the beginning of
the study to either estradiol+medroxyprogesterone acetate or estradiol+drospirenone for the
first period, and will receive the other medication the second six-weeks of the study. At
the very beginning of the study and at the end of each six-week treatment period, subjects
will come to the hospital various tests including non-invasive blood vessel imaging tests,
blood draws to test the levels of certain hormones in the body, an oral glucose tolerance
test, a test to monitor renal blood flow, and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. Between
treatment periods, there will be a four-week medication-free washout period.
Evaluation of Adhesion Quality of a New Formulation of the Mylan Estradiol Transdermal System 0.025 mg/Day and ClimaraŽ Transdermal System 0.025 mg/Day [Completed]
The primary objective of this study was to compare the adhesive quality of a new formulation
of the Mylan Estradiol Transdermal System with that of ClimaraŽ Transdermal System following
a single system application in 80 healthy postmenopausal female volunteers. As a secondary
objective, primary dermal irritation was assessed after removal of each transdermal system.
PATIENT REVIEWS / RATINGS / COMMENTS
Based on a total of 5 ratings/reviews, Innofem has an overall score of 9.20. The effectiveness score is 8.80 and the side effect score is 9.60. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst. Below are selected reviews: the highest, the median and the lowest rated.
Innofem review by 50 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Considerably Effective|
|Side effects:|| || No Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || Hormone replacement |
|Dosage & duration:|| || 1 mg taken twice a day for the period of 1 year|
|Other conditions:|| || none|
|Other drugs taken:|| || vitamins|
|Benefits:|| || continuation of hormone replacement after stopping birth control pills
No hot flashes or night sweats.|
|Side effects:|| || Break-through bleeding or spotting, breast pain and changes in sexuality(decrease in libido). Fluid retention. Brown patcheson the forehead,temples. |
|Comments:|| || Oral dose taken in the morning and evening. Tried the estrogen patch, but did not like the sticky 'bandaid' on my skin.It would get sticky on the edges and be a magnet for clothes fibers.|
Innofem review by 50 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Highly Effective|
|Side effects:|| || No Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || Menopause symptoms|
|Dosage & duration:|| || .025 (dosage frequency: daily (patch applied 1x week)) for the period of ongoing|
|Other conditions:|| || acid reflux|
|Other drugs taken:|| || Nexium|
|Benefits:|| || Benefits: Patch applied 1x weekly assured consistent delivery of dosage. No skin irritation reported by patient but recommended that site used be rotated weekly. Patch can come off if not applied correctly to clean dry skin - no lotions or creams s/b present. May not be metabolized through liver as much as oral estrogen - advantage.|
|Side effects:|| || Slight irritation at application site of patch. If mfrs. directions followed and site rotated, this can be reduced or eliminated. No other notable side effects.|
|Comments:|| || Patch is applied 1x weekly. Treatment continued to alleviate hot flashes. Original dosage was higher and company has come out with smaller dosages. Patient can be slowly "weaned" to smaller dosages until no longer needed.|
Innofem review by 54 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Moderately Effective|
|Side effects:|| || No Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || hot flashes, unable to sleep|
|Dosage & duration:|| || 1 mg taken daily for the period of 1 year|
|Other conditions:|| || high blood pressure|
|Other drugs taken:|| || dyazide|
|Benefits:|| || I did get relief from the hot flashes and this did contribute to a good nights sleep. I had a hystirectomy a year before I was put on the hormones. I say an increase in wrinkles in that first year. I can not say that I have seen a slowing in the aging process but I am sleeping better and that of course will bennefit the skin.|
|Side effects:|| || I have not experienced any side effects to my knowledge. I feel as if an increase in the dose would maybe last longer as I seem to be waking at least once a night with a hot flash. I take it in the morning so maybe by the time I hit the sheets it is out of my system. I do not miss a day and always take it at the same time each morning. |
|Comments:|| || As I stated I had a hystirectomy at 50 years old. I went over a year w/out any homone treatment and the hot flashes got so severe I was waking about 5 to 6 times a night. I was using over the counter sleep aids and did not like them. I got the doctor to prescribe the hormones and the benefits were almost immediate. I have been on the same dose for over a year now and feel I might benefit from an increased dose. I am 54 now and am looking not quite my age but the aging process is speeding up I feel.|
Page last updated: 2013-05-30