THE USE OF HIVID HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL ADVERSE REACTIONS, SOME OF WHICH ARE POTENTIALLY FATAL. HIVID CAN CAUSE SEVERE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND BECAUSE OF THIS SHOULD BE USED WITH EXTREME CAUTION IN PATIENTS WITH PREEXISTING NEUROPATHY. HIVID MAY ALSO RARELY CAUSE PANCREATITIS AND PATIENTS WHO DEVELOP ANY SYMPTOMS SUGGESTIVE OF PANCREATITIS WHILE USING HIVID SHOULD HAVE THERAPY SUSPENDED IMMEDIATELY UNTIL THIS DIAGNOSIS IS EXCLUDED.
LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, INCLUDING FATAL CASES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION, INCLUDING HIVID (SEE WARNINGS).
IN ADDITION, RARE CASES OF HEPATIC FAILURE AND DEATH CONSIDERED POSSIBLY RELATED TO UNDERLYING HEPATITIS B AND HIVID HAVE BEEN REPORTED (SEE WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
HIVID® (zalcitabine) TABLETS
HIVID is the Hoffmann-La Roche brand of zalcitabine [formerly called 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC)], a synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIVID is available as film-coated tablets for oral administration in strengths of 0.375 mg and 0.750 mg.
HIVID is indicated in combination with antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection.
Media Articles Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
U.S. Perinatal HIV Infection Fell to 69 Infants in 2013: CDC
Source: Medscape HIV/AIDS Headlines [2017.03.23]
Perinatal HIV infection steadily declined in the U.S. between 2002 and 2013, but “missed opportunities” remain for preventing transmission, according to new research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Reuters Health Information
Acute HIV infection: Symptoms, diagnosis, and management
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2017.03.11]
How is acute HIV infection diagnosed, what are the causes, and what is the outlook? How can an acute HIV infection be managed and can it be prevented?
Genetics of both virus and patient work together to influence the course of HIV infection
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2017.02.09]
A patient's genetics may impact disease progression by inducing mutations in the HIV genome.
HIV rash: What does it look like and how long does it last?
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2017.02.22]
Rashes are one of the earliest symptoms of an HIV infection. Learn about the types of rash that can occur, their duration, and treatment options.
Published Studies Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
Efficacy and safety of zidovudine and zalcitabine combined with a combination of herbs in the treatment of HIV-infected Thai patients. [2005.05]
A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of combined-herbs (SH) given with zidovudine (ZDV) and zalcitabine (ddC) for the treatment of HIV infection in Thai adults was conducted in 3 hospitals in northern Thailand during 2002 to 2003... The SH herbs may be an alternative for the third anti-retroviral agent in the triple drug regimen for the treatment of HIV infected patients in countries with limited resources.
Greater and more rapid depletion of mitochondrial DNA in blood of patients treated with dual (zidovudine+didanosine or zidovudine+zalcitabine) vs. single (zidovudine) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. [2004.01]
BACKGROUND: Most toxicities associated with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are thought to result from mitochondrial toxicity. These toxicities include peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, lactic acidosis, and peripheral lipoatrophy. Unfortunately, there are no validated laboratory markers for clinically assessing, let alone predicting, the onset of mitochondrial toxicity associated with NRTI therapy. OBJECTIVES: To provide preliminary evidence of the potential clinical utility of an assay which has been developed for quantifying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in clinical samples from HIV-infected patients... CONCLUSIONS: This single-tube duplex real-time DNA-NASBA assay was shown to measure mtDNA accurately in PBMC. Treatment with a combination of two NRTIs was associated with greater reductions in mtDNA than obtained for ZDV monotherapy. The relevance of these results in predicting treatment toxicity requires further evaluation.
Effect of lamivudine in HIV-infected persons with prior exposure to zidovudine/didanosine or zidovudine/zalcitabine. [2000.09.20]
Nucleoside analog-based regimens remain an integral component of combination therapy for use in both antiretroviral treatment-naive and experienced HIV-infected patients. To further define treatment responses to new antiretroviral therapy in patients with long-term experience to dual nucleoside analog therapy (zidovudine [ZDV] plus didanosine [ddI] or ZDV plus zalcitabine [ddC]), 325 subjects derived from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175 trial were randomized to three different combination regimens: (1) continuation of ZDV + ddI or ZDV + ddC (continuation arm), (2) addition of 3TC to ZDV + ddI or ZDV + ddC (addition arm), or (3) a switch to ZDV + 3TC therapy (switch arm)...
A randomized, double-blind trial of half versus standard dose of zidovudine plus zalcitabine in Thai HIV-1-infected patients (study HIV-NAT 001). HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration. [2000.07.07]
BACKGROUND: Triple combination antiretroviral therapy, recommended as standard of care, is unaffordable for much of the developing world. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether half doses of zidovudine (AZT) and zalcitabine (ddC) are as effective as standard doses in a Thai population with lower body weight than Western populations and predominantly infected with HIV-1 subtype E... CONCLUSION: At week 48, the proportion with HIV RNA < 400 copies/ml was significantly higher in the standard dose arm; lower baseline HIV RNA correlated with better HIV RNA outcome at 48 weeks. The arms did not differ in CD4 cell response but standard doses correlated with greater CD8 cell decline.
Quality of life outcomes of combination zalcitabine-zidovudine, saquinavir-zidovudine, and saquinavir-zalcitabine-zidovudine therapy for HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts between 50 and 350 per cubic millimeter. PISCES (SV14604) Study Group. [1999.05.07]
BACKGROUND: This double-blind study evaluated treatment with zalcitabine-zidovudine, saquinavir-zidovudine, or saquinavir-zalcitabine-zidovudine on the health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts between 50 and 350 cells/mm3... CONCLUSIONS: Patients on triple combination therapy maintained their quality of life over 48 weeks compared with significant decreases in the quality of life for ddC/ZDV combination therapy.
Clinical Trials Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Therapy With Retrovir ( AZT ) and HIVID ( ddC ) Versus Retrovir, HIVID, and Wellferon ( Interferon Alfa-n1 ) for the Treatment of HIV Infection [Completed]
Primary: To determine whether the combination of zidovudine/zalcitabine/interferon alfa-n1
(Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon) can produce complete responses (i. e., CD4 counts return to >= 800
cells/mm3 for more than 24 weeks) in patients with virus sensitive to all three agents. To
determine the antiviral effect of the combination therapies as evidenced by measures of
quantitative viral load performed at select study centers only.
Secondary: To determine the effectiveness of Retrovir/HIVID and Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon in
maintaining or increasing CD4 counts and preventing disease progression as evidenced by the
development of an AIDS-defining indicator disease. To determine the effect of these regimens
on secondary measures of clinical status (e. g., performance score, weight change, and
secondary infections) and on measures of virologic activity such as serum p24 antigen. To
assess the safety and tolerance of these regimens.
A Randomized, Open-Label Study of Alternative Treatment Combinations of Dideoxycytidine (HIVID; ddC) and Zidovudine (AZT) in Patients With HIV Infection [Completed]
To investigate the appropriate zalcitabine ( dideoxycytidine; ddC ) dose and zidovudine (
AZT ) schedule for use in combination therapy in patients with HIV infection.
The Safety and Effectiveness of Retrovir Plus HIVID Combined With Either Nevirapine or Invirase in the Treatment of HIV Infection [Completed]
To evaluate the tolerance and immunologic and virologic effects of multidrug combinations of
antiretrovirals in patients with HIV infection. Specifically, to evaluate
zidovudine/zalcitabine ( AZT / ddC ) alone or in combination with either nevirapine or
saquinavir ( Ro 31-8959 ).
Administration of three-drug combinations for treatment of HIV infection is preferred over
monotherapy or duotherapy. A system has been designed to rapidly evaluate current multidrug
combinations of antiretrovirals and allow the addition of new agents as they become
A Study of Saquinavir and Zalcitabine, Used Alone and Together, in the Treatment of Advanced HIV Infection in Patients Who Stopped Taking or Who Cannot Take Zidovudine [Completed]
Dideoxycytidine ( Ro 24-2027 ). A Treatment Protocol for the Use of Dideoxycytidine ( ddC ) in Patients With AIDS or Advanced ARC Who Cannot Be Maintained on Zidovudine ( AZT ) Therapy. [Completed]
To provide zalcitabine ( ddC ) for patients with AIDS or Advanced ARC in whom zidovudine (
AZT ) is contraindicated, or who have failed treatment with or are intolerant to AZT and to
demonstrate that ddC monotherapy is safe, and tolerable in this patient population.
Page last updated: 2017-03-23