THE USE OF HIVID HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL ADVERSE REACTIONS, SOME OF WHICH ARE POTENTIALLY FATAL. HIVID CAN CAUSE SEVERE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND BECAUSE OF THIS SHOULD BE USED WITH EXTREME CAUTION IN PATIENTS WITH PREEXISTING NEUROPATHY. HIVID MAY ALSO RARELY CAUSE PANCREATITIS AND PATIENTS WHO DEVELOP ANY SYMPTOMS SUGGESTIVE OF PANCREATITIS WHILE USING HIVID SHOULD HAVE THERAPY SUSPENDED IMMEDIATELY UNTIL THIS DIAGNOSIS IS EXCLUDED.
LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, INCLUDING FATAL CASES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION, INCLUDING HIVID (SEE WARNINGS).
IN ADDITION, RARE CASES OF HEPATIC FAILURE AND DEATH CONSIDERED POSSIBLY RELATED TO UNDERLYING HEPATITIS B AND HIVID HAVE BEEN REPORTED (SEE WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Media Articles Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
Entire female reproductive tract is susceptible to HIV infection, suggests study of vaginal virus challenge in rhesus macaques
Source: Sexual Health / STDs News From Medical News Today [2014.10.09]
Most women are infected with HIV through vaginal intercourse, and without effective vaccines or microbicides, women who cannot negotiate condom use by their partners remain vulnerable.
Baby "Cured" of HIV Infection
Source: MedicineNet nevirapine Specialty [2013.04.03]
Title: Baby "Cured" of HIV Infection
Category: Doctor's & Expert's views on Symptoms
Created: 4/3/2013 6:12:00 PM
Last Editorial Review: 4/3/2013 6:12:53 PM
Why HIV prevention dosing differs by sex
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2014.11.03]
A mathematical model developed by NIH grantees predicts that women must take the antiretroviral medication Truvada daily to prevent HIV infection via vaginal sex, whereas just two doses per week can...
Published Studies Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
Efficacy and safety of zidovudine and zalcitabine combined with a combination of herbs in the treatment of HIV-infected Thai patients. [2005.05]
A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of combined-herbs (SH) given with zidovudine (ZDV) and zalcitabine (ddC) for the treatment of HIV infection in Thai adults was conducted in 3 hospitals in northern Thailand during 2002 to 2003... The SH herbs may be an alternative for the third anti-retroviral agent in the triple drug regimen for the treatment of HIV infected patients in countries with limited resources.
Greater and more rapid depletion of mitochondrial DNA in blood of patients treated with dual (zidovudine+didanosine or zidovudine+zalcitabine) vs. single (zidovudine) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. [2004.01]
BACKGROUND: Most toxicities associated with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are thought to result from mitochondrial toxicity. These toxicities include peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, lactic acidosis, and peripheral lipoatrophy. Unfortunately, there are no validated laboratory markers for clinically assessing, let alone predicting, the onset of mitochondrial toxicity associated with NRTI therapy. OBJECTIVES: To provide preliminary evidence of the potential clinical utility of an assay which has been developed for quantifying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in clinical samples from HIV-infected patients... CONCLUSIONS: This single-tube duplex real-time DNA-NASBA assay was shown to measure mtDNA accurately in PBMC. Treatment with a combination of two NRTIs was associated with greater reductions in mtDNA than obtained for ZDV monotherapy. The relevance of these results in predicting treatment toxicity requires further evaluation.
Effect of lamivudine in HIV-infected persons with prior exposure to zidovudine/didanosine or zidovudine/zalcitabine. [2000.09.20]
Nucleoside analog-based regimens remain an integral component of combination therapy for use in both antiretroviral treatment-naive and experienced HIV-infected patients. To further define treatment responses to new antiretroviral therapy in patients with long-term experience to dual nucleoside analog therapy (zidovudine [ZDV] plus didanosine [ddI] or ZDV plus zalcitabine [ddC]), 325 subjects derived from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175 trial were randomized to three different combination regimens: (1) continuation of ZDV + ddI or ZDV + ddC (continuation arm), (2) addition of 3TC to ZDV + ddI or ZDV + ddC (addition arm), or (3) a switch to ZDV + 3TC therapy (switch arm)...
A randomized, double-blind trial of half versus standard dose of zidovudine plus zalcitabine in Thai HIV-1-infected patients (study HIV-NAT 001). HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration. [2000.07.07]
BACKGROUND: Triple combination antiretroviral therapy, recommended as standard of care, is unaffordable for much of the developing world. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether half doses of zidovudine (AZT) and zalcitabine (ddC) are as effective as standard doses in a Thai population with lower body weight than Western populations and predominantly infected with HIV-1 subtype E... CONCLUSION: At week 48, the proportion with HIV RNA < 400 copies/ml was significantly higher in the standard dose arm; lower baseline HIV RNA correlated with better HIV RNA outcome at 48 weeks. The arms did not differ in CD4 cell response but standard doses correlated with greater CD8 cell decline.
Quality of life outcomes of combination zalcitabine-zidovudine, saquinavir-zidovudine, and saquinavir-zalcitabine-zidovudine therapy for HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts between 50 and 350 per cubic millimeter. PISCES (SV14604) Study Group. [1999.05.07]
BACKGROUND: This double-blind study evaluated treatment with zalcitabine-zidovudine, saquinavir-zidovudine, or saquinavir-zalcitabine-zidovudine on the health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts between 50 and 350 cells/mm3... CONCLUSIONS: Patients on triple combination therapy maintained their quality of life over 48 weeks compared with significant decreases in the quality of life for ddC/ZDV combination therapy.
Clinical Trials Related to Hivid (Zalcitabine)
A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Therapy With Retrovir ( AZT ) and HIVID ( ddC ) Versus Retrovir, HIVID, and Wellferon ( Interferon Alfa-n1 ) for the Treatment of HIV Infection [Completed]
Primary: To determine whether the combination of zidovudine/zalcitabine/interferon alfa-n1
(Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon) can produce complete responses (i. e., CD4 counts return to >= 800
cells/mm3 for more than 24 weeks) in patients with virus sensitive to all three agents. To
determine the antiviral effect of the combination therapies as evidenced by measures of
quantitative viral load performed at select study centers only.
Secondary: To determine the effectiveness of Retrovir/HIVID and Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon in
maintaining or increasing CD4 counts and preventing disease progression as evidenced by the
development of an AIDS-defining indicator disease. To determine the effect of these regimens
on secondary measures of clinical status (e. g., performance score, weight change, and
secondary infections) and on measures of virologic activity such as serum p24 antigen. To
assess the safety and tolerance of these regimens.
A Randomized, Open-Label Study of Alternative Treatment Combinations of Dideoxycytidine (HIVID; ddC) and Zidovudine (AZT) in Patients With HIV Infection [Completed]
To investigate the appropriate zalcitabine ( dideoxycytidine; ddC ) dose and zidovudine ( AZT
) schedule for use in combination therapy in patients with HIV infection.
Dideoxycytidine ( Ro 24-2027 ) A Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Study of Dideoxycytidine ( ddC ) Versus Zidovudine ( AZT ) in Patients With AIDS or Advanced ARC Who Have Received Long-Term AZT Therapy. [Completed]
To compare the effectiveness of zalcitabine ( dideoxycytidine; ddC ) therapy to zidovudine (
AZT ) in the treatment of AIDS or advanced AIDS related complex ( ARC ) in patients who have
already received at least 1 year of AZT therapy and to define the safety profile.
ddC has been shown to have an antiviral effect, and AZT is known to significantly decrease
mortality and to reduce the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS or
advanced ARC. After 1 year of AZT therapy, the effectiveness tends to diminish and patients
progress with more opportunistic infections and higher mortality rates. This may be due to
the emergence of AZT resistant virus isolated from some patients who have been on long-term
AZT therapy. These isolates were still sensitive to ddC. A study of long-term effectiveness
of ddC in patients with AIDS or advanced ARC who have been on long-term AZT therapy is
warranted because (1) ddC has antiviral activity, (2) there is no blood toxicity associated
with taking ddC, and (3) the effectiveness of ddC in test tube studies does not seem to be
diminished by decreased effectiveness of AZT.
A Study of Saquinavir and Zalcitabine, Used Alone and Together, in the Treatment of Advanced HIV Infection in Patients Who Stopped Taking or Who Cannot Take Zidovudine [Completed]
The Safety and Effectiveness of Retrovir Plus HIVID Combined With Either Nevirapine or Invirase in the Treatment of HIV Infection [Completed]
To evaluate the tolerance and immunologic and virologic effects of multidrug combinations of
antiretrovirals in patients with HIV infection. Specifically, to evaluate
zidovudine/zalcitabine ( AZT / ddC ) alone or in combination with either nevirapine or
saquinavir ( Ro 31-8959 ).
Administration of three-drug combinations for treatment of HIV infection is preferred over
monotherapy or duotherapy. A system has been designed to rapidly evaluate current multidrug
combinations of antiretrovirals and allow the addition of new agents as they become