Heparin is a heterogeneous group of straight-chain anionic mucopolysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, having anticoagulant properties. Although others may be present, the main sugars occurring in heparin are: (1) α-L-iduronic acid 2-sulfate, (2) 2-deoxy-2- sulfamino-α-D-glucose 6-sulfate, (3) β-D-glucuronic acid, (4) 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucose and (5) α-L-iduronic acid. These sugars are present in decreasing amounts, usually in the order (2)> (1)> (4)> (3)> (5), and are joined by glycosidic linkages, forming polymers of varying sizes. Heparin is strongly acidic because of its content of covalently linked sulfate and carboxylic acid groups. In heparin sodium, the acidic protons of the sulfate units are partially replaced by sodium ions.
Heparin Sodium Injection, USP is a sterile solution of heparin sodium derived from porcine intestinal mucosa, standardized for anticoagulant activity, in water for injection. It is to be administered by intravenous or deep subcutaneous routes. The potency is determined by a biological assay using a USP reference standard based on units of heparin activity per milligram.
Heparin Sodium Injection is indicated for:
Anticoagulant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension;
Low-dose regimen for prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing major abdominothoracic surgery or who, for other reasons, are at risk of developing thromboembolic disease (see
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Prophylaxis and treatment of pulmonary embolism;
Atrial fibrillation with embolization;
Diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic consumptive coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation);
Prevention of clotting in arterial and cardiac surgery;
Prophylaxis and treatment of peripheral arterial embolism.
Heparin may also be employed as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, extracorporeal circulation, and dialysis procedures and in blood samples for laboratory purposes
Media Articles Related to Heparin
Potential for future prevention of prion conversion and disease using heparin
Source: CJD / vCJD / Mad Cow Disease News From Medical News Today [2014.03.26]
Prions are infectious agents responsible for neurodegenerative diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalitis (commonly known as "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
Published Studies Related to Heparin
Is there evidence that fresh frozen plasma is superior to antithrombin
administration to treat heparin resistance in cardiac surgery? 
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured
protocol. The question addressed was, 'in [patients with heparin resistance] is
[treatment with FFP] superior [to antithrombin administration] in [achieving
adequate anticoagulation to facilitate safe cardiopulmonary bypass]?' More than
29 papers were found using the reported search, of which six represented the best
evidence to answer the clinical question...
Combined oral prednisolone and heparin versus heparin: the effect on peripheral
NK cells and clinical outcome in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.
A double-blind placebo randomized controlled trial. 
CONCLUSION: The addition of prednisolone to heparin and low dose aspirin might be
Low-molecular-weight heparin biosimilars: potential implications for clinical
practice. Australian Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Biosimilar Working Group
A working group of clinicians and scientists was formed to review the clinical
considerations for use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) biosimilars... The consensus opinion of
the working group is that prior to clinical use a LMWH biosimilar should have
proven efficacy and safety, similar to the reference product with prospective
studies, which should be confirmed with a proactive post-marketing
Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining
peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs. 
sodium chloride... CONCLUSIONS: Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10
Heparin for assisted reproduction. 
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this Cochrane review of three randomised
Clinical Trials Related to Heparin
Sodic Heparin Effectiveness of the Treatment of Burns [Not yet recruiting]
Burns are injuries caused by agents thermal, chemical, electrical or radioactive who act in
the tissue lining of the human body and may partially or totally destroy the skin and its
annexes, to the deeper layers, as subcutaneous tissue, muscles, tendons and bones .
Studies show that topical heparin has, in addition to the already known anticoagulant
activity, anti-inflammatory properties, analgesic, and neoangiogenic, stimulating blood flow
and increasing the repair of the fabric as well as the restoration of collagen and
reepiteliztion. Moreover, the use of heparin reduces the need for painful medical
procedures, as debridations, surgeries and transplants The intention of this work is to
verify the effectiveness and safety of sodium heparin in the treatment of burns of the skin.
Heparin Versus no Heparin on Duration of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Patency in Neonates [Not yet recruiting]
Background: Heparin is an anticoagulant commonly used in the neonatal population as a means
to prevent catheter related occlusion and malfunction by thrombosis (clot). Given the
recent overdoses of infants using heparin, there is concern as to whether heparin should be
used in peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). Scientific evidence
comparing the duration of use of heparin versus no heparin in PICCs is conflicting.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of continuous IV fluids with
heparin versus IV fluids without heparin on the duration of percutaneously inserted central
venous catheters (PICC) in neonates.
Design: Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial Hypothesis: The use of
heparin in PICC fluids has no difference on duration of catheter patency.
Design and Methods: The study will be conducted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at
University Hospital, San Antonio, TX. Randomization to either the experimental group
(no-heparin) or the standard medical group (with heparin) will occur once parental consent
is obtained and prior to PICC insertion. PICC placement will be done by the PICC certified
neonatal nurses. Correct placement of the PICC will be assured by radiography which is
Parents, NICU team members and staff, and investigators will be masked to the grouping.
Pharmacy will be responsible for randomization. Both the heparin group and the no heparin
group solutions will be dispensed in identical containers, compounded by the pharmacy.
The study medication, heparin, will be mixed by the pharmacy at a standard dose of 0. 5
units/mL for the intravenous infusions used in the heparin group. The experimental group
will receive only the base solution, whether it is 5% dextrose, 0. 9% sodium chloride, or
total parenteral nutrition infused into the PICC line. Pharmacy and the NICU staff will
ensure compatibility of heparin with other infusions. Heparin bonded catheters, heparin
flushes, and hep-lock solutions are not used by the NICU service.
The primary outcome, duration of catheter use, is defined as the time (in hours) between
insertion and removal of the catheter due to occlusion. Occlusion will be defined as the
inability to push 1 mL of 0. 9% sodium chloride, via a 5 mL syringe, through the catheter in
situ or detection of clots along the catheter after removal.
Secondary outcomes include septicemia vs. catheter-related septicemia, phlebitis, death
before discharge, and thrombosis. Septicemia is identified as clinical signs and symptoms
associated with sepsis in the presence of a positive peripheral blood culture obtained
irrespective of the catheter tip culture result. Catheter-related sepsis will be defined as
positive blood culture obtained from the catheter fluid as well as a positive blood culture
obtained from a peripheral venous specimen. Both cultures must demonstrate the same
organism. Phlebitis is defined by visual detection, swelling, and change of skin color
associated with an inflamed vein. Thrombosis is defined as a thrombus along catheter path
diagnosed by visual inspection upon removal of the catheter. Elective versus non-elective
removal will also be recorded.
Adverse events monitored include: heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), defined as a
platelet count dropping below 50 x 103/mL with a positive antibody titer, aPTT > 100 seconds
(This will be measured upon clinical evidence of bleeding), hemorrhage from > 2 sites,
intraventricular hemorrhage, extravasation, and dislodgement or breakage of catheter.
The sample size will be determined based on retrospective data collection to reach a
statistical power of 80% with a type I error or 0. 05. The investigators expect the sample
size to be approximately 102 patients in each arm of the study.
The study will terminate once the PICC is discontinued or if there is an indication to stop
the study early for safety reasons. These could include increased adverse events in one
group versus the other. A Safety Control Panel composed of 2 neonatologists from another
site will review the data at the points when 1/3 and then 2/3 of total patient enrollment
has been achieved.
Data Collection and Analysis: Data will be collected and tabulated on a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet using unique patient identifiers and stored at a secure location at UHS then
analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.
Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Heparin in Patients (Cristália) [Not yet recruiting]
A Non-inferiority Study Comparing Two Heparin Sodium Preparations in Hip Fracture Surgery [Not yet recruiting]
The primary objective and endpoints of the study is compare the efficacy of two products
containing heparin sodium, evaluating if the formulation produced by Eurofarma can be
considered non-inferior to the reference product.
Comparison of Heparin Types; Efficacy and Safety [Not yet recruiting]
Reports of Suspected Heparin Side Effects
Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (79),
Cerebral Haemorrhage (23),
Pulmonary Embolism (20),
Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage (15),
Thrombosis in Device (15),
Nausea (15), more >>