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Glyburide (Glyburide) - Warnings and Precautions

 
 



PRECAUTIONS

General

Macrovascular Outcomes:

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with glyburide tablets or any other anti-diabetic drug

Hypoglycemia:

All sulfonylureas are capable of producing severe hypoglycemia. Proper patient selection and dosage and instructions are important to avoid hypoglycemic episodes. Renal or hepatic insufficiency may cause elevated drug levels of glyburide and the latter may also diminish gluconeogenic capacity, both of which increase the risk of serious hypoglycemic reactions. Elderly, debilitated or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, are particularly susceptible to the hypoglycemic action of glucose-lowering drugs. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. Hypoglycemia is more likely to occur when caloric intake is deficient, after severe or prolonged exercise, when alcohol is ingested, or when more than one glucose lowering drug is used. The risk of hypoglycemia may be increased with combination therapy.

Loss of control of blood glucose: When a patient stabilized on any diabetic regimen is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a loss of control may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to discontinue glyburide tablets and administer insulin.

The effectiveness of any oral hypoglycemic drug, including glyburide tablets, in lowering blood glucose to a desired level decreases in many patients over a period of time, which may be due to progression of the severity of the diabetes or to diminished responsiveness to the drug. This phenomenon is known as secondary failure, to distinguish it from primary failure in which the drug is ineffective in an individual patient

when glyburide tablets is first given. Adequate adjustment of dose and adherence to diet should be assessed before classifying a patient as a secondary failure.

Hemolytic Anemia:

Treatment of patients with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with sulfonylurea agents can lead to hemolytic anemia. Because glyburide tablets belong to the class of sulfonylurea agents, caution should be used in patients with G6PD deficiency and a non-sulfonylurea alternative should be considered. In post marketing reports, hemolytic anemia has also been reported in patients who did not have known G6PD deficiency.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the potential risks and advantages of glyburide tablets and of alternative modes of therapy. They also should be informed about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, of a regular exercise program, and of regular testing of urine and/or blood glucose.

The risks of hypoglycemia, its symptoms and treatment, and conditions that predispose to its development should be explained to patients and responsible family members. Primary and secondary failure also should be explained.

Physician Counseling Information for Patients:

In initiating treatment for type 2 diabetes, diet should be emphasized as the primary form of treatment. Caloric restriction and weight loss are essential in the obese diabetic patient. Proper dietary management alone may be effective in controlling the blood glucose and symptoms of hyperglycemia. The importance of regular physical activity should also be stressed, and cardiovascular risk factors should be identified and corrective measures taken where possible. Use of glyburide tablets or other antidiabetic medications must be viewed by both the physician and patient as a treatment in addition to diet and not as a substitution or as a convenient mechanism for avoiding dietary restraint. Furthermore, loss of blood glucose control on diet alone may be transient, thus requiring only short-

term administration of glyburide tablets or other antidiabetic medications. Maintenance or discontinuation of glyburide tablets or other antidiabetic medications should be based on clinical judgment using regular clinical and laboratory evaluations.

Laboratory Tests

Therapeutic response to glyburide tablets should be monitored by frequent urine glucose tests and periodic blood glucose tests. Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin levels may be helpful in some patients.

Drug Interactions

The hypoglycemic action of sulfonylureas may be potentiated by certain drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and other drugs that are highly protein bound, salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, probenecid, coumarins, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and beta adrenergic blocking agents. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving glyburide tablets, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving glyburide tablets, the patient should be observed closely for loss of control.

An increased incidence of elevated liver enzymes was observed in patients receiving glyburide concomitantly with bosentan. Therefore concomitant administration of glyburide tablets and bosentan is contraindicated.

A possible interaction between glyburide and ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has been reported, resulting in a potentiation of the hypoglycemic action of glyburide. The mechanism for this interaction is not known.

A potential interaction between oral miconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported. Whether this interaction also occurs with the intravenous, topical or vaginal preparations of miconazole is not known.

Metformin: In a single-dose interaction study in NIDDM subjects, decreases in glyburide AUC and C were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects, makes the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain. Coadministration of glyburide and metformin did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. max

Colesevelam: Concomitant administration of colesevelam and glyburide resulted in reduction in glyburide AUC and C of 32% and 47%, respectively.The reduction in glyburide AUC and C were 20% and 15%, respectively when administered 1 hour before, and not significantly changed (-7% and 4%, respectively) when administered 4 hours before colesevelam. max max

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day for 18 months showed no carcinogenic effects. Glyburide is nonmutagenic when studied in the Salmonella microsome test (Ames test) and in the DNA damage/alkaline elution assay. No drug related effects were noted in any of the criteria evaluated in the two year oncogenicity study of glyburide in mice.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 500 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to glyburide. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Because recent information suggests that abnormal blood glucose levels during pregnancy are associated with a higher incidence of congenital abnormalities, many experts recommend that insulin be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose as close to normal as possible.

Nonteratogenic Effects:

Prolonged severe hypoglycemia (4 to 10 days) has been reported in neonates born to mothers who were receiving a sulfonylurea drug at the time of delivery.. This has been reported more frequently with the use of agents with prolonged half-lives. If glyburide tablets is used during pregnancy, it should be discontinued at least two weeks before the expected delivery date.

Nursing Mothers

Although it is not known whether glyburide is excreted in human milk, some sulfonylurea drugs are known to be excreted in human milk. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If the drug is discontinued, and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients are particularly susceptible to the hypoglycemic action of glucose lowering drugs. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly (see). The initial and maintenance dosing should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions (see). PRECAUTIONS DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Elderly patients are prone to develop renal insufficiency, which may put them at risk of hypoglycemia. Dose selection should include assessment of renal function.

Page last updated: 2013-11-18

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