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Glucagon (Glucagon Hydrochloride) - Summary



Glucagon for Injection (rDNA origin) is a polypeptide hormone identical to human glucagon that increases blood glucose and relaxes smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Glucagon is synthesized in a special non-pathogenic laboratory strain of bacteria that has been genetically altered by the addition of the gene for glucagon.

For the treatment of hypoglycemia:

Glucagon is indicated as a treatment for severe hypoglycemia.

Because patients with type 1 diabetes may have less of an increase in blood glucose levels compared with a stable type 2 patient, supplementary carbohydrate should be given as soon as possible, especially to a pediatric patient.

For use as a diagnostic aid:

Glucagon is indicated as a diagnostic aid in the radiologic examination of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon when diminished intestinal motility would be advantageous.

Glucagon is as effective for this examination as are the anticholinergic drugs. However, the addition of the anticholinergic agent may result in increased side effects.

See all Glucagon indications & dosage >>


Media Articles Related to Glucagon

Glucagon Receptor Antagonist Shows Early Promise in Type 1 Diabetes
Source: Medscape Diabetes & Endocrinology Headlines [2017.06.19]
Though early days, this proof-of-concept study is 'exciting' research because "if we could normalize glucagon regulation [in diabetes] this could be a very significant advance," said one expert.
Medscape Medical News

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Published Studies Related to Glucagon

Glucagon-like peptide 1 attenuates the acceleration of gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. [2014]
CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of exogenous GLP-1 attenuates, but does not

Acute effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1, free fatty acids, and glycerol following consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects. [2013]
following a standardized mixed meal with or without single consumption of a CBFI... CONCLUSION: CBFI may therefore be of great value in the treatment of overweight

Effects of LX4211, a dual sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 inhibitor, on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine in a dose-timing study in healthy subjects. [2013]
and tolerability of LX4211 in healthy subjects were also assessed... CONCLUSIONS: This clinical study indicates that dosing of LX4211 immediately

The effect of the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide 1 analog liraglutide on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. [2011.08]
INTRODUCTION: Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug, and is frequently used to study gastric emptying. Due to its high permeability and high solubility, acetaminophen can be used as a pharmacologic model for medications with similar characteristics. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of liraglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acetaminophen in patients with type 2 diabetes... CONCLUSION: The overall exposure of acetaminophen following a 1 g dose was comparable for subjects taking liraglutide or placebo, and the clinical impact of the lower C(max) and delay in absorption of acetaminophen was considered to be transient and small, and without clinical relevance. No adjustment for acetaminophen is recommended when used concomitantly with liraglutide.

Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients. [2011.07]
Impaired glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion or response may contribute to ineffective insulin release in type 2 diabetes...

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Clinical Trials Related to Glucagon

Acute Regulation of Intestinal and Hepatic Lipoprotein Production by Glucagon [Completed]
Insulin resistant states are characterized by hepatic lipoprotein (VLDL) particle overproduction. Numerous hormonal and nutritional factors are known to influence hepatic lipoprotein particle production, including insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). In contrast to the liver, the intestine has traditionally been viewed as a 'passive' organ with respect to lipoprotein production, with intestinal lipoprotein particle production determined mainly by the amount of fat ingested and absorbed. Glucagon plays a key role in the regulation of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism and has recently been shown for the first time to regulate hepatic lipoprotein production in mice. Ours will be the first study to investigate the effect of glucagon on hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein production in humans.

Safety Study of Repeated Doses of Glucagon on Animal Starch in the Liver [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to learn if giving multiple doses of a hormone called glucagon can cause a major decrease in liver glycogen (animal starch). Glucagon is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to be given as a large dose to treat severe low blood sugar. Our group is studying whether glucagon can be given in repeated small doses to prevent hypoglycemia.

Study of Glucagon, Ghrelin and Growth Hormone as Counterregulatory Hormones [Recruiting]
Glucagon has been used for decades as a test of growth hormone (GH) reserve. The pathway by which GH is stimulated by glucagon is not established. Acyl ghrelin has been shown to increase GH levels and to be stimulated by an increase in adrenergic activity. The proposed study will test the concept that with the fall in blood glucose it is likely that there is a sympathetic discharge which contributes to the increase in acyl ghrelin and indirectly leads to the increase in GH and cortisol.

Assessment of Intranasal Glucagon in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to assess how glucagon administered as a puff into the nose (AMG504-1) works in children and adolescents compared with commercially-available glucagon given by injection. In addition, the safety and tolerability of glucagon given as a puff into the nose will be evaluated.

Evaluate the Immunogenicity of a Novel Glucagon Formulation [Completed]
In recent past years, regulatory agencies such as FDA and EMA have outlined and recommended adoption of a risk-based approach to evaluating and mitigating immune responses to therapeutic proteins that may adversely affect their safety and efficacy. In their recommendations, both transient and persistent antibody responses should be combined to determine the overall immunogenicity of a product in a given condition. In particular, persistent antibodies are of high importance, since patients with persistent antibodies are more likely to experience clinical sequelae in terms of safety and efficacy, while a transient antibody response can resolve without further consequence. The present study will provide information on immunogenicity of AMG504-1 with regards to the potential development of high antibody titers or neutralizing antibody activity which may lead to loss of efficacy or an increased risk of an adverse reaction.

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Reports of Suspected Glucagon Side Effects

Pulmonary Oedema (7)Drug Interaction (4)Skin Ulcer (4)Dyspnoea (4)Cellulitis (4)International Normalised Ratio Increased (4)Wrong Technique in Drug Usage Process (3)Drug Dose Omission (2)Infection (2)Expired Drug Administered (2)more >>

Page last updated: 2017-06-19

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