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Glipizide (Glipizide) - Summary

 
 



GLIPIZIDE SUMMARY

Glipizide is an oral blood-glucose-lowering drug of the sulfonylurea class. The chemical abstracts name of glipizide is 1-Cyclohexyl-3-[[ p -[2-(5-methylpyrazinecarboxamido)ethyl]phenyl] sulfonyl]urea.

Glipizide tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet for the control of hyperglycemia and its associated symptomatology in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM; type II), formerly known as maturity-onset diabetes, after an adequate trial of dietary therapy has proved unsatisfactory.

In initiating treatment for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, diet should be emphasized as the primary form of treatment. Caloric restriction and weight loss are essential in the obese diabetic patient. Proper dietary management alone may be effective in controlling the blood glucose and symptoms of hyperglycemia. The importance of regular physical activity should also be stressed, and cardiovascular risk factors should be identified, and corrective measures taken where possible.

If this treatment program fails to reduce symptoms and/or blood glucose, the use of an oral sulfonylurea or insulin should be considered. Use of glipizide must be viewed by both the physician and patient as a treatment in addition to diet, and not as a substitute for diet or as a convenient mechanism for avoiding dietary restraint. Furthermore, loss of blood glucose control on diet alone also may be transient, thus requiring only short-term administration of glipizide.

During maintenance programs, glipizide should be discontinued if satisfactory lowering of blood glucose is no longer achieved. Judgments should be based on regular clinical and laboratory evaluations.

In considering the use of glipizide in asymptomatic patients, it should be recognized that controlling blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes has not been definitely established to be effective in preventing the long-term cardiovascular or neural complications of diabetes.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Glipizide

Effects of Metformin Versus Glipizide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease. [2012]
OBJECTIVEThe two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...

Dapagliflozin versus glipizide as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who have inadequate glycemic control with metformin: a randomized, 52-week, double-blind, active-controlled noninferiority trial. [2011.09]
CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar 52-week glycemic efficacy, dapagliflozin reduced weight and produced less hypoglycemia than glipizide in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Long-term studies are required to further evaluate genital and urinary tract infections with SGLT2 inhibitors.

Meal fat storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue: comparison of pioglitazone and glipizide treatment of type 2 diabetes. [2010.10]
Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat...

Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, compared with the sulfonylurea, glipizide, in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin alone: a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. [2007.03]
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin vs. glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control [haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) > or = 6.5 and < or = 10%] on metformin monotherapy... CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the addition of sitagliptin compared with glipizide provided similar HbA(1c)-lowering efficacy over 52 weeks in patients on ongoing metformin therapy. Sitagliptin was generally well tolerated, with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia relative to glipizide and with weight loss compared with weight gain with glipizide.

Lack of an effect of pioglitazone or glipizide on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in type 2 diabetes. [2007.03]
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y agonist with vascular beneficial effects, and glipizide, an insulin secretagogue, on novel inflammatory vascular risk markers in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes... CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated concentrations of the novel vascular risk marker LpPLA2 and inflammatory risk markers e-selectin and VCAM-1. Neither pioglitazone nor glipizide significantly altered LpPLA2, VCAM-1, or highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels after 12 weeks of therapy. In study subjects with type 2 diabetes, e-selectin concentrations declined significantly with pioglitazone therapy, whereas ICAM-1 concentrations decreased significantly with glipizide therapy.

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Clinical Trials Related to Glipizide

Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans [Recruiting]
The SUGARMGH investigators are studying the influence of inherited gene variants on the response to two commonly prescribed type 2 diabetes medications, metformin and glipizide. They hypothesize that variants in genes that are associated with type 2 diabetes or related traits may impact the effect of anti-diabetic medications. In addition, physiological responses to an insulin secretagogue or an insulin sensitizer may shed light on the mechanism of action of reported genetic associations.

A Study of MK-3102 in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Chronic Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure on Dialysis (MK-3102-019 AM2) [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MK-3102 in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and moderate or severe chronic renal insufficiency or end stage renal disease on dialysis with inadequate glycemic control.

Outpatient Discharge Therapy With Saxagliptin+MetforminXR vs GlipizideXL for Type 2 Diabetes With Severe Hyperglycemia [Recruiting]
Saxagliptin + Metformin XR (S+M) will be effective in stabilizing blood glucose (BG) levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with severe hyperglycemia (BG levels 300 to 450 mg/dl) and glucose toxicity and with no criteria for inpatient admission or occurrence of severe hypoglycemia compared to glipizide XL.

The study may provide preliminary evidence to support the role of S+M as a bridging, stabilizing and safe therapy in patients with severe hyperglycemia

Efficacy and Safety Study of Alogliptin Compared to Glipizide in Elderly Diabetics [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin compared to glipizide in elderly diabetic patients who have not received treatment or are on a single oral medication.

Food Study of Glipizide and Metformin HCl Tablets 5 mg/500 mg to Metaglip® Tablets 5 mg/500 mg [Completed]
The objective of this study was to investigate the bioequivalence of Mylan's glipizide and metformin HCl 5 mg/500 mg tablets to Bristol-Myers Squibb's Metaglip® 5 mg/500 mg tablets following a single, oral 5 mg/500 mg (1 x 5 mg/500 mg) dose administration under fed conditions.

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Reports of Suspected Glipizide Side Effects

Blood Glucose Increased (57)Hypoglycaemia (40)Blood Glucose Decreased (25)Completed Suicide (21)Death (19)Diabetes Mellitus Inadequate Control (14)Drug Ineffective (13)Dizziness (13)Injection Site Haematoma (10)Toxicity TO Various Agents (10)more >>


Page last updated: 2013-02-10

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