GAMMAGARD S/D, Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) [IGIV] is a solvent/detergent treated, sterile, freeze-dried preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) derived from large pools of human plasma. The product is manufactured by the Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation process followed by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. Source material for fractionation may be obtained from another U.S. licensed manufacturer. The manufacturing process includes treatment with an organic solvent/detergent mixture,1,2 composed of tri-n-butyl phosphate, octoxynol 9 and polysorbate 80.3 The GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing process provides a significant viral reduction in
studies.3 These studies, summarized in Table 1, demonstrate virus clearance during GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing using infectious human immunodeficiency virus, Types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2); bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD), a model virus for hepatitis C virus; sindbis virus (SIN), a model virus for lipid-enveloped viruses; pseudorabies virus (PRV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped DNA viruses such as herpes; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped RNA viruses; hepatitis A virus (HAV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped RNA viruses; and porcine parvovirus (PPV), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped DNA viruses.3 These reductions are achieved through a combination of process chemistry, partitioning and/or inactivation during cold ethanol fractionation and the solvent/detergent treatment.3
GAMMAGARD S/D is not indicated in patients with selective IgA deficiency where the IgA deficiency is the only abnormality of concern (see WARNINGS section).
GAMMAGARD S/D is indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficient states, such as: congenital agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and severe combined immuno-deficiencies.6,7 This indication was supported by a clinical trial of 17 patients with primary immunodeficiency who received a total of 341 infusions. GAMMAGARD S/D is especially useful when high levels or rapid elevation of circulating IgG are desired or when intramuscular injections are contraindicated (e.g., small muscle mass).
GAMMAGARD S/D is indicated for prevention of bacterial infections in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and/or recurrent bacterial infections associated with B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In a study of 81 patients, 41 of whom were treated with GAMMAGARD, Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), bacterial infections were significantly reduced in the treatment group.8,9 In this study, the placebo group had approximately twice as many bacterial infections as the IGIV group. The median time to first bacterial infection for the IGIV group was greater than 365 days. By contrast, the time to first bacterial infection in the placebo group was 192 days. The number of viral and fungal infections, which were for the most part minor, was not statistically different between the two groups.
When a rapid rise in platelet count is needed to prevent and/or to control bleeding in a patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, the administration of GAMMAGARD S/D, should be considered.
Published Studies Related to Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous)
Evaluation of intravenous anthrax immune globulin for treatment of inhalation
Bacillus anthracis toxins can be neutralized by antibodies against protective
antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. Anthrivig (human anthrax
immunoglobulin), also known as AIGIV, derived from plasma of humans immunized
with BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed), is under development for the treatment
of toxemia following exposure to anthrax spores.
Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin. [2011.09.29]
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death and complications despite antibiotic treatment. Effective adjunctive treatments are needed. Newborn infants are relatively deficient in endogenous immunoglobulin. Meta-analyses of trials of intravenous immune globulin for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis suggest a reduced rate of death from any cause, but the trials have been small and have varied in quality... CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with intravenous immune globulin had no effect on the outcomes of suspected or proven neonatal sepsis.
Standard-dose intravenous anti-D immunoglobulin versus intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of newly diagnosed childhood primary immune thrombocytopenia. [2011.05]
CONCLUSIONS: A single bolus dose of 50 mug/kg of IV anti-D is a safe and effective first-line treatment in newly diagnosed ITP in childhood and mucosal bleeding is a poor prognostic factor for treatment with IVIG.
Misleading hepatitis B test results due to intravenous immunoglobulin administration: implications for a clinical trial of rituximab in immune thrombocytopenia. [2010.12]
BACKGROUND: Rituximab may cause reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) even in patients with remote HBV infection. Thus, the presence of hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) was an exclusion criterion for a randomized trial of rituximab for patients with immune thrombocytopenia. A high seroprevalence of anti-HBc observed among patients screened for the trial prompted this substudy to investigate for an association between anti-HBc seropositivity and exposure to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)... CONCLUSIONS: Passive transfer of anti-HBc from certain IVIG products may lead to misinterpretation of hepatitis test results with implications for treatment and clinical trial eligibility. To avoid misleading test results, anti-HBc should be measured before or 3 months after IVIG administration; alternatively an IVIG product known to be free of anti-HBc should be used. (c) 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. [2010.09]
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a common inflammatory neuropathy that can be progressive, stepwise progressive, or relapsing and remitting. OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous in CIDP... CONCLUSION: Data support a favorable safety and tolerability profile for administration of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified as CIDP maintenance therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00220740.
Clinical Trials Related to Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous)
A Study to Find How Safe and Effective GAMMAPLEX® is in Subjects With Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) [Completed]
To determine if GAMMAPLEX raises the platelet count of subjects with chronic ITP to a
threshold of 50 x 109/L, similar to that of published response >60%. Also to assess the
safety of GAMMAPLEX and determine if platelet counts are maintained at 50 x 109/L in
subjects with chronic ITP for.
Trial of the Efficacy of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treating Women With Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage [Completed]
The investigators want to test whether infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin - a blood
product known to modify immune responses - in early pregnancy will increase the chance of a
subsequent live birth in women with three or more miscarriages after a birth and a total of
at least four miscarriages. This will be done in a trial where 82 patients will be randomly
allocated to infusions with intravenous immunoglobulin or placebo during pregnancy.
Investigating the Role of Early Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment for Children With Encephalitis [Not yet recruiting]
This is a phase III multi-centre randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to
assess the role of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of children with
encephalitis. The primary objective is to find out whether early use of IVIG treatment
improves neurological outcomes of children with encephalitis.
308 children with encephalitis, aged 6 weeks to 16 years will be recruited in 30 hospitals
in the United Kingdom. Participants will be randomised to receive two doses of IVIG or
matching placebo in addition to other standard treatments, within the first five days of
Each participant will be followed up for 12 months. During this period, information on
clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations will be collected. Neurological
outcomes will be assessed by the use of questionnaires at 6 and 12 months, and a
neuropsychological assessment at 12 months.
A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for HIV-Associated Myelopathy [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an
effective treatment for HIV associated myelopathy.
Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Complex-regional Pain Syndrome [Not yet recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine whether intravenous immunoglobulins are effective
in the treatment of complex-regional pain syndrome.
Reports of Suspected Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous) Side Effects
Atrial Fibrillation (5),
Blood Pressure Increased (4),
Dizziness (3), more >>
Page last updated: 2014-11-30