GAMMAGARD S/D, Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) [IGIV] is a solvent/detergent treated, sterile, freeze-dried preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) derived from large pools of human plasma. The product is manufactured by the Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation process followed by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. Source material for fractionation may be obtained from another U.S. licensed manufacturer. The manufacturing process includes treatment with an organic solvent/detergent mixture,1,2 composed of tri-n-butyl phosphate, octoxynol 9 and polysorbate 80.3 The GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing process provides a significant viral reduction in
studies.3 These studies, summarized in Table 1, demonstrate virus clearance during GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing using infectious human immunodeficiency virus, Types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2); bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD), a model virus for hepatitis C virus; sindbis virus (SIN), a model virus for lipid-enveloped viruses; pseudorabies virus (PRV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped DNA viruses such as herpes; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped RNA viruses; hepatitis A virus (HAV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped RNA viruses; and porcine parvovirus (PPV), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped DNA viruses.3 These reductions are achieved through a combination of process chemistry, partitioning and/or inactivation during cold ethanol fractionation and the solvent/detergent treatment.3
GAMMAGARD S/D is not indicated in patients with selective IgA deficiency where the IgA deficiency is the only abnormality of concern (see WARNINGS section).
GAMMAGARD S/D is indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficient states, such as: congenital agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and severe combined immuno-deficiencies.6,7 This indication was supported by a clinical trial of 17 patients with primary immunodeficiency who received a total of 341 infusions. GAMMAGARD S/D is especially useful when high levels or rapid elevation of circulating IgG are desired or when intramuscular injections are contraindicated (e.g., small muscle mass).
GAMMAGARD S/D is indicated for prevention of bacterial infections in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and/or recurrent bacterial infections associated with B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In a study of 81 patients, 41 of whom were treated with GAMMAGARD, Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), bacterial infections were significantly reduced in the treatment group.8,9 In this study, the placebo group had approximately twice as many bacterial infections as the IGIV group. The median time to first bacterial infection for the IGIV group was greater than 365 days. By contrast, the time to first bacterial infection in the placebo group was 192 days. The number of viral and fungal infections, which were for the most part minor, was not statistically different between the two groups.
When a rapid rise in platelet count is needed to prevent and/or to control bleeding in a patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, the administration of GAMMAGARD S/D, should be considered.
Published Studies Related to Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous)
Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin. [2011.09.29]
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death and complications despite antibiotic treatment. Effective adjunctive treatments are needed. Newborn infants are relatively deficient in endogenous immunoglobulin. Meta-analyses of trials of intravenous immune globulin for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis suggest a reduced rate of death from any cause, but the trials have been small and have varied in quality... CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with intravenous immune globulin had no effect on the outcomes of suspected or proven neonatal sepsis.
Standard-dose intravenous anti-D immunoglobulin versus intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of newly diagnosed childhood primary immune thrombocytopenia. [2011.05]
CONCLUSIONS: A single bolus dose of 50 mug/kg of IV anti-D is a safe and effective first-line treatment in newly diagnosed ITP in childhood and mucosal bleeding is a poor prognostic factor for treatment with IVIG.
Misleading hepatitis B test results due to intravenous immunoglobulin administration: implications for a clinical trial of rituximab in immune thrombocytopenia. [2010.12]
BACKGROUND: Rituximab may cause reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) even in patients with remote HBV infection. Thus, the presence of hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) was an exclusion criterion for a randomized trial of rituximab for patients with immune thrombocytopenia. A high seroprevalence of anti-HBc observed among patients screened for the trial prompted this substudy to investigate for an association between anti-HBc seropositivity and exposure to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)... CONCLUSIONS: Passive transfer of anti-HBc from certain IVIG products may lead to misinterpretation of hepatitis test results with implications for treatment and clinical trial eligibility. To avoid misleading test results, anti-HBc should be measured before or 3 months after IVIG administration; alternatively an IVIG product known to be free of anti-HBc should be used. (c) 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. [2010.09]
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a common inflammatory neuropathy that can be progressive, stepwise progressive, or relapsing and remitting. OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous in CIDP... CONCLUSION: Data support a favorable safety and tolerability profile for administration of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified as CIDP maintenance therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00220740.
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases: a review of the evidence for its efficacy and safety. 
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a biologic agent that is being increasingly used in the treatment of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. It is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, bone marrow transplantation in patients aged over 20 years, chronic B-cell lymphocytic leukemia, and pediatric AIDS...
Clinical Trials Related to Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous)
Trial of the Efficacy of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treating Women With Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage [Recruiting]
The investigators want to test whether infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin - a blood
product known to modify immune responses - in early pregnancy will increase the chance of a
subsequent live birth in women with three or more miscarriages after a birth and a total of
at least four miscarriages. This will be done in a trial where 82 patients will be randomly
allocated to infusions with intravenous immunoglobulin or placebo during pregnancy.
Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Subcutaneous GAMUNEX-C in Pediatric Subjects With Primary Immunodeficiency [Recruiting]
The purpose of this open-label study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and
tolerability of subcutaneously (SC; under the skin) administered GAMUNEX®-C compared to
intravenously (IV; through the vein) administered GAMUNEX®-C in subjects 2-16 years of age
with Primary Immunodeficiency.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy [Not yet recruiting]
The purpose of the study is to see if administering intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)
(putting immune globulin directly into your blood) helps to improve the symptoms of
orthostatic hypotension (sudden fall in blood pressure when a person stands up) and quality
of life in men and women who have autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG).
Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Severe and Refractory Solar Urticaria [Recruiting]
Solar urticaria is a rare but debilitating disease that can severely impact the quality of
life, restricting outdoor activities. Treatment, based on sun protection and anti-histaminic
drugs, is efficacious in 2 patients out of 3. In refractory patients, photodesensitization
or immunosuppressive treatments such as cyclosporin A can be proposed. As in idiopathic
urticaria, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG)have been shown, in a retrospective study of 7
patients, to dramatically improve 71% of patients. In an open-label prospective multicenter
study, we aim to demonstrate the efficacy of a single IVIG administration (2g/kg) in 10
patients affected with severe and refractory solar urticaria.
Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Complex-regional Pain Syndrome [Not yet recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine whether intravenous immunoglobulins are effective
in the treatment of complex-regional pain syndrome.
Reports of Suspected Gammagard S / D (Immune Globulin Intravenous) Side Effects
Atrial Fibrillation (5),
Blood Pressure Increased (4),
Dizziness (3), more >>
Page last updated: 2011-12-09