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Fosinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide (Fosinopril Sodium / Hydrochlorothiazide) - Warnings and Precautions

 
 



WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY

  • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide as soon as possible.
  • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. See Warnings: Fetal Toxicity
 

WARNINGS

Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions

Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.

Head and Neck Angioedema : Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, treatment with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately. When involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx appears likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g., subcutaneous epinephrine injection 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL) should be promptly administered (see PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization : Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane

Exposure : Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

Hypotension

Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide can cause symptomatic hypotension. Like other ACE inhibitors, fosinopril has been only rarely associated with hypotension in uncomplicated hypertensive patients. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume- and/or salt-depleted as a result of prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Volume and/or salt depletion should be corrected before initiating therapy with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide.

Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be used cautiously in patients receiving concomitant therapy with other antihypertensives. The thiazide component of fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide may potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs, especially ganglionic or peripheral adrenergic-blocking drugs. The antihypertensive effects of the thiazide component may also be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.

In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy may cause excessive hypotension, which may be associated with oliguria, azotemia, and (rarely) with acute renal failure and death. In such patients, fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide therapy should be started under close medical supervision; they should be followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of fosinopril or diuretic is increased.

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in a supine position, and, if necessary, treated with intravenous infusion of physiological saline. Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide treatment usually can be continued following restoration of blood pressure and volume.

Impaired Renal Function

Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease. Thiazides may precipitate azotemia in such patients, and the effects of repeated dosing may be cumulative.

When the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is inhibited by ACE inhibitors, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe congestive heart failure, whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (including fosinopril) may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death.

In some studies of hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, treatment with ACE inhibitors has been associated with increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine; these increases were reversible upon discontinuation of ACE inhibitor therapy, concomitant diuretic therapy, or both. When such patients are treated with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.

Some ACE-inhibitor-treated hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when the ACE inhibitor has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. Dosage reduction of fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide may be required. Evaluation of the hypertensive patient should always include assessment of renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis

Another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, rarely in uncomplicated patients (incidence probably less than once per 10,000 exposures), but more frequently (incidence possibly as great as once per 1,000 exposures) in patients with renal impairment, especially those who also have a collagen-vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Available data from clinical trials of fosinopril are insufficient to show that fosinopril does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates. Monitoring of white blood cell counts should be considered in patients with collagen-vascular disease, especially if the disease is associated with impaired renal function.

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis has also been associated with thiazide diuretics.

Fetal toxicity

Pregnancy Category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.

In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. [see Precautions, Pediatric Use]

Intrauterine exposure to thiazide diuretics is associated with fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions that occurred in adults.

No teratogenic effects of fosinopril were seen in studies of pregnant rats and rabbits. On a mg/kg basis, the doses used were up to 180 times (in rats) and one time (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose. No teratogenic effects of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide were seen in studies of pregnant rats and rabbits. On a mg/kg (fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide) basis, the doses used were up to 188/94 times (in rats) and 0.6/0.3 times (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose.

Impaired Hepatic Function

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that begins with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. A patient receiving fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide who develops jaundice or marked elevation of hepatic enzymes should discontinue fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. Also, since the metabolism of fosinopril to fosinoprilat is normally dependent upon hepatic esterases, patients with impaired liver function could develop elevated plasma levels of fosinopril. In a study of patients with alcoholic or biliary cirrhosis the rate (but not the extent) of hydrolysis to fosinoprilat was reduced. In these patients the clearance of fosinoprilat was reduced, and the area under the fosinoprilat-time curve was approximately doubled.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Derangements of Serum Electrolytes: In clinical trials of fosinopril monotherapy, hyperkalemia (serum potassium at least 10% greater than the upper limit of normal) occurred in approximately 2.6% of hypertensive patients receiving fosinopril. In most cases, these were isolated values which resolved despite continued therapy. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia included renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes.

Conversely, treatment with thiazide diuretics has been associated with hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypochloremic alkalosis. These disturbances have sometimes been manifest as one or more of dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting. Hypokalemia can also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis. The risk of hypokalemia is greatest in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, in patients experiencing a brisk diuresis, in patients who are receiving inadequate oral intake of electrolytes, and in patients receiving concomitant therapy with corticosteroids or ACTH.

The opposite effects of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide on serum potassium will approximately balance each other in many patients, so that no net effect upon serum potassium will be seen. In other patients, one or the other effect may be dominant. Initial and periodic determinations of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals.

Chloride deficits are generally mild and require specific treatment only under extraordinary circumstances (e.g., in liver disease or renal disease). Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients; appropriate therapy is water restriction rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.

Calcium excretion is decreased by thiazides. In a few patients on prolonged thiazide therapy, pathological changes in the parathyroid gland have been observed, with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. More serious complications of hyperparathyroidism (renal lithiasis, bone resorption, and peptic ulceration) have not been seen.

Thiazides increase the urinary excretion of magnesium, and hypomagnesemia may result.

Other Metabolic Disturbances: Thiazide diuretics tend to reduce glucose tolerance and to raise serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. These effects are usually minor, but frank gout or overt diabetes may be precipitated in susceptible patients.

Cough: Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough.

Surgery/Anesthesia: In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, fosinopril will block the angiotensin II formation that could otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension that occurs as a result of this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.

Information for Patients

Angioedema: Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, can occur with treatment with ACE inhibitors, especially following the first dose. A patient receiving fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be told to report immediatelyany signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, eyes, lips, or tongue, or difficulty in breathing) and to take no more drug until after consulting with the prescribing physician.

Pregnancy

Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.

Symptomatic Hypotension: A patient receiving fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be cautioned that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and that it should be reported to the prescribing physician. The patients should be told that if syncope occurs, fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be discontinued until the physician has been consulted.

All patients should be cautioned that inadequate fluid intake, excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure, with the same consequences of lightheadedness and possible syncope.

Hyperkalemia: A patient receiving fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician.

Neutropenia: Patients should be told to promptly report any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever), which could be a sign of neutropenia.

Laboratory Tests

Therapy with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide should be interrupted for a few days before carrying out tests of parathyroid function.

Fosinopril may cause false low measurement of serum digoxin levels when the Digi-Tab® (Nuclear Medical) RIA Kit is used. The accuracy of the Coat-A-Count® (Diagnostic Products Corporation) kit is not affected.

Drug Interactions

Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min).

Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics: As noted above (“Derangements of Serum Electrolytes”), the net effect of fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide may be to elevate a patient’s serum potassium, to reduce it, or to leave it unchanged. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be given with caution, and the patient’s serum potassium should be monitored frequently.

Lithium: Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors during therapy with lithium. Because renal clearance of lithium is reduced by thiazides, the risk of lithium toxicity is presumably raised further when, as in therapy with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, a thiazide diuretic is coadministered with the ACE inhibitor. Fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide and lithium should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.

Antacids: In a clinical pharmacology study, serum levels and urinary excretion of fosinoprilat were reduced when fosinopril was coadministered with an antacid (aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone) suggesting that antacids may impair absorption of fosinopril. If concomitant administration of these agents is indicated, dosing should be separated by 2 hours.

Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide.

Other: The bioavailability of unbound fosinoprilat is not altered by coadministration of fosinopril with aspirin, chlorthalidone , cimetidine, digoxin, metoclopramide, nifedipine, propranolol, propantheline, or warfarin. Other ACE inhibitors have had less than additive effects with beta-adrenergic blockers, presumably because drugs of both classes lower blood pressure by inhibiting parts of the renin-angiotensin system.

Interaction studies with warfarin have failed to identify any clinically important effects of fosinopril on the serum concentration or clinical effects of the anticoagulant.

Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be increased, decreased, or unchanged.

Thiazides may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine, but not enough to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use.

Thiazides may increase the responsiveness to tubocurarine.

The diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of thiazide diuretics may be reduced by concurrent administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents; the effects (if any) of these agents on the antihypertensive effect of fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide have not been studied.

By alkalinizing the urine, hydrochlorothiazide may decrease the effectiveness of methenamine.

Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins:Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Fosinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide: Reproductive studies and long-term carcinogenicity studies with fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide have not been conducted. The combination of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide was not mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test, the mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, or the Chinese hamster ovary cell cytogenetic assay. The combination was also not genotoxic in a mouse micronucleus test in vivo.

Fosinopril Sodium: No evidence of a carcinogenicity was found when fosinopril was given in the diet to rats and mice for up to 24 months at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day. On a body weight basis, the highest dose was about 250 times the maximum human dose of 80 mg, given to a 50 kg subject. On a body surface area basis, this dose is 20 (mice) to 40 (rats) times the maximum human dose.

Neither fosinopril nor the fosinoprilat moiety was mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test, the mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, or a mitotic gene conversion assay. Fosinopril was also not genotoxic in a mouse micronucleus test in vivo and a mouse bone marrow cytogenetic assay in vivo.

In Chinese hamster ovary cell cytogenetic assay, fosinopril increased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations when tested without metabolic activation at a concentration that was toxic to the cells. However, there was no increase in chromosomal aberrations at lower drug concentrations without metabolic activation or at any concentration with metabolic activation.

There were no adverse reproductive effects in male and female rats treated with up to 60 mg/kg daily. At doses 4 times higher, slight increases in pairing time were seen. This higher dose is about 125 (body surface area basis) or 600 (body weight basis) times greater than the dose received by a 50 kg human receiving 20 mg a day.

Hydrochlorothiazide: Under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program, rats and mice received hydrochlorothiazide for two years at doses up to 100 (rats) and 600 (mice) mg/kg/day. On a body weight basis, these highest doses were about 2400 times (mice) or 400 times (rats) the fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide dose of 12.5 mg, given to a 50 kg subject. On a body surface area basis, these doses are 226 times (mice) and 82 times (rats) the fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide dose. These studies uncovered no evidence of carcinogenicity in rats or female mice, but there was equivocal evidence of hepatocarcinogenicity in male mice.

Hydrochlorothiazide was not genotoxic in in vitro assays using strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and TA 1538 of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames assay); in the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) test for chromosomal aberrations; or in in vivo assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes; Chinese Hamster bone-marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal trait gene. Using concentrations of hydrochlorothiazide of 43 to 1300 mg/mL, positive test results were obtained in the in vitro CHO Sister Chromatid Exchange (clastogenicity) test and in the Mouse Lymphoma Cell (mutagenicity) assays. Using an unspecified concentration of hydrochlorothiazide, positive test results were also obtained in the Aspergillus nidulans nondisjunction assay.

No adverse effects upon fertility were seen when rats and mice received dietary hydrochlorothiazide prior to mating and throughout gestation at doses up to 4 (rats) and 100 (mice) mg/kg/day. These doses are from 3.2 (body surface area basis in rats) to 400 (weight basis in mice) times greater than the dose received by a 50 kg human receiving 12.5 mg a day.

Nursing Mothers

Both fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of fosinopril sodium and hydrochlorothiazide did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Pediatric Use

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide:

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Removal of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide, which crosses the placenta, from the neonatal circulation is not significantly accelerated by these means.

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Page last updated: 2013-11-10

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