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Flagyl (Metronidazole) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Pregnancy Category B

Metronidazole crosses the placental barrier and enters the fetal circulation rapidly. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to five times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to metronidazole. Metronidazole administered intraperitoneally to pregnant mice at approximately the human dose caused fetotoxicity; administered orally to pregnant mice, no fetotoxicity was observed. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, and because metronidazole is a carcinogen in rodents, these drugs should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

OVERDOSAGE

Use of dosages of intravenous metronidazole higher than those recommended has been reported. These include the use of 27 mg/kg three times a day for 20 days, and the use of 75 mg/kg as a single loading dose followed by 7.5 mg/kg maintenance doses. No adverse reactions were reported in either of the two cases.

Single oral dose of metronidazole, up to 15 g, have been reported in suicide attempts and accidental overdoses. Symptoms reported included nausea, vomiting and ataxia.

Oral metronidazole has been studied as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of malignant tumors. Neurotoxic effects, including seizures and peripheral neuropathy, have been reported after 5 to 7 days of doses of 6 to 10.4 g every other day.

Treatment: There is no specific antidote for overdose; therefore, management of the patient should consist of symptomatic and supportive therapy.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU® is contraindicated in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives.

REFERENCES

  1. M11-A5-Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; approved Standard-Fifth Edition, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; and Sutter, et al.: Collaborative Evaluation of a Proposed Reference Dilution Method of Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16:495-502 (Oct.) 1979; and Tally, et al.: In Vitro Activity of Thienamycin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14:436-438 (Sept.) 1978.
  2. Ralph, E.D. and Kirby, W.M.M.: Bioassay of Metronidazole with Either Anaerobic and Aerobic Incubation, J. Infect. Dis. 132:587-591 (Nov.) 1975; or Gulaid, et al.: Determination of Metronidazole and its Major Metabolites in Biological Fluids by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. BR.J.Clin. Pharmacol. 6:430-432, 1978.

Baxter Healthcare Corporation

Deerfield, IL 60015 USA

Printed in USA

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