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Epivir (Lamivudine) - Summary

 
 



BOXED WARNING

WARNING
LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, INCLUDING FATAL CASES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH THE USE OF NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION, INCLUDING LAMIVUDINE AND OTHER ANTIRETROVIRALS (SEE WARNINGS).
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) COUNSELING AND TESTING SHOULD BE OFFERED TO ALL PATIENTS BEFORE BEGINNING EPIVIR-HBV AND PERIODICALLY DURING TREATMENT (SEE WARNINGS), BECAUSE EPIVIR-HBV TABLETS AND ORAL SOLUTION CONTAIN A LOWER DOSE OF THE SAME ACTIVE INGREDIENT (LAMIVUDINE) AS EPIVIRTABLETS AND ORAL SOLUTION USED TO TREAT HIV INFECTION. IF TREATMENT WITH EPIVIR-HBV IS PRESCRIBED FOR CHRONIC HEPATITIS B FOR A PATIENT WITH UNRECOGNIZED OR UNTREATED HIV INFECTION, RAPID EMERGENCE OF HIV RESISTANCE IS LIKELY BECAUSE OF SUBTHERAPEUTIC DOSE AND INAPPROPRIATE MONOTHERAPY.
SEVERE ACUTE EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE DISCONTINUED ANTI-HEPATITIS B THERAPY (INCLUDING EPIVIR-HBV). HEPATIC FUNCTION SHOULD BE MONITORED CLOSELY WITH BOTH CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FOLLOW-UP FOR AT LEAST SEVERAL MONTHS IN PATIENTS WHO DISCONTINUE ANTI-HEPATITIS B THERAPY. IF APPROPRIATE, INITIATION OF ANTI-HEPATITIS B THERAPY MAY BE WARRANTED (SEE WARNINGS).


 

EPIVIR SUMMARY

EPIVIR-HBV is a brand name for lamivudine, a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV. Lamivudine was initially developed for the treatment of HIV infection as EPIVIR. Please see the complete prescribing information for EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution for additional information.

EPIVIR-HBV is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B associated with evidence of hepatitis B viral replication and active liver inflammation. This indication is based on 1-year histologic and serologic responses in adult patients with compensated chronic hepatitis B, and more limited information from a study in pediatric patients ages 2 to 17 years (see Description of Clinical Studies below).
The following point should be considered when initiating therapy with EPIVIR-HBV:

  • ?     Due to high rates of resistance development in treated patients, initiation of lamivudine treatment should only be considered when the use of an alternative antiviral agent with a higher genetic barrier to resistance is not available or appropriate.

Description of Clinical Studies:
Adults: The safety and efficacy of EPIVIR-HBV were evaluated in 4 controlled studies in 967 patients with compensated chronic hepatitis B. All patients were 16 years of age or older and had chronic hepatitis B virus infection (serum HBsAg-positive for at least 6 months) accompanied by evidence of HBV replication (serum HBeAg-positive and positive for serum HBV DNA, as measured by a research solution-hybridization assay) and persistently elevated ALT levels and/or chronic inflammation on liver biopsy compatible with a diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis. Three of these studies provided comparisons of EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg once daily versus placebo, and results of these comparisons are summarized below.
  • ?     Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind study of EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg once daily versus placebo for 52 weeks followed by a 16-week no-treatment period in treatment-naive US patients.
  • ?     Study 2 was a randomized, double-blind, 3-arm study that compared EPIVIR-HBV 25 mg once daily versus EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg once daily versus placebo for 52 weeks in Asian patients.
  • ?     Study 3 was a randomized, partially-blind, 3-arm study conducted primarily in North America and Europe in patients who had ongoing evidence of active chronic hepatitis B despite previous treatment with interferon alfa. The study compared EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg once daily for 52 weeks, followed by either EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg or matching placebo once daily for 16 weeks (Arm 1), versus placebo once daily for 68 weeks (Arm 2). (A third arm using a combination of interferon and lamivudine is not presented here because there was not sufficient information to evaluate this regimen.)
Principal endpoint comparisons for the histologic and serologic outcomes in lamivudine (100 mg daily) and placebo recipients in placebo-controlled studies are shown in the following tables.

Table 3. Histologic Response at Week 52 Among Adult Patients Receiving EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg Once Daily or Placebo
a Improvement was defined as adecrease in the Knodell Histologic Activity Index (HAI)1 at Week 52 compared with pretreatment HAI. Patients with missing data at baseline were excluded.AssessmentStudy 1Study 2Study 3EPIVIR-HBV (n = 62)Placebo (n = 63)EPIVIR-HBV (n = 131)Placebo (n = 68)EPIVIR-HBV (n = 110)Placebo (n = 54)Improvementa55%25%56%26%56%26%No Improvement27%59%36%62%25%54%Missing Data18%16%8%12%19%20%
Table 4. HBeAg Seroconversiona at Week 52 Among Adult Patients Receiving EPIVIR-HBV 100 mg Once Daily or Placebo
a Three-component seroconversion was defined as Week 52 values showing loss of HBeAg, gain of HBeAb, and reduction of HBV DNA to below the solution-hybridization assay limit. Subjects with negative baseline HBeAg or HBV DNA assay were excluded from the analysis.SeroconversionStudy 1Study 2Study 3EPIVIR-HBV (n = 63)Placebo (n = 69)EPIVIR-HBV (n = 140)Placebo (n = 70)EPIVIR-HBV (n = 108)Placebo (n = 53)Responder17%6%16%4%15%13%Nonresponder67%78%80%91%69%68%Missing Data16%16%4%4%17%19%Normalization of serum ALT levels was more frequent with lamivudine treatment compared with placebo in Studies 1-3.
The majority of lamivudine-treated patients showed a decrease of HBV DNA to below the assay limit early in the course of therapy. However, reappearance of assay-detectable HBV DNA during lamivudine treatment was observed in approximately one third of patients after this initial response.
Pediatrics: The safety and efficacy of EPIVIR-HBV were evaluated in a double-blind clinical trial in 286 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age, who were randomized (2:1) to receive 52 weeks of lamivudine (3 mg/kg once daily to a maximum of 100 mg once daily) or placebo. All patients had compensated chronic hepatitis B accompanied by evidence of hepatitis B virus replication (positive serum HBeAg and positive for serum HBV DNA by a research branched-chain DNA assay) and persistently elevated serum ALT levels. The combination of loss of HBeAg and reduction of HBV DNA to below the assay limit of the research assay, evaluated at Week 52, was observed in 23% of lamivudine subjects and 13% of placebo subjects. Normalization of serum ALT was achieved and maintained to Week 52 more frequently in patients treated with EPIVIR-HBV compared with placebo (55% versus 13%). As in the adult controlled trials, most lamivudine-treated subjects had decreases in HBV DNA below the assay limit early in treatment, but about one third of subjects with this initial response had reappearance of assay-detectable HBV DNA during treatment. Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) showed less evidence of treatment effect than younger children.


See all Epivir indications & dosage >>

NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Epivir (Lamivudine)

Randomised clinical trial: efficacy of peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine resistance. [2011.08]
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that a finite course of peginterferon alfa-2a may offer an alternative rescue therapy for patients with lamivudine resistance. However, because of the limitation of study design and small sample size, it is difficult to make definitive conclusion. AIM: To explore the role of peginterferon alfa-2a, in the rescue treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine resistance... CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the response to peginterferon alfa-2a among patients with lamivudine resistance was suboptimal. HBeAg seroconversion rate at week 72 by 48 weeks peginterferon alfa-2a treatment was higher than continuous adefovir therapy. Monitoring HBsAg levels can help to predict response to peginterferon alfa-2a. (c) 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Virological suppression does not prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis receiving oral antiviral(s) starting with lamivudine monotherapy: results of the nationwide HEPNET. Greece cohort study. [2011.08]
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients of the large HEPNET.Greece cohort study who received long-term oral antivirals starting with lamivudine monotherapy... CONCLUSIONS: Long-term therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) starting with lamivudine monotherapy does not eliminate HCC risk in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. The risk of HCC is particularly high in patients with cirrhosis, who should remain under HCC surveillance even during effective therapy. Older age and male gender remain independent risk factors for HCC, while virological on-therapy remission does not seem to significantly reduce the overall incidence of HCC.

Peripheral and central fat changes in subjects randomized to abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir-emtricitabine with atazanavir-ritonavir or efavirenz: ACTG Study A5224s. [2011.07.15]
BACKGROUND: We compare the effect of 4 different antiretroviral regimens on limb and visceral fat... CONCLUSIONS: ABC-3TC- and TDF-FTC-based regimens increased limb and visceral fat at week 96, with a similar prevalence of lipoatrophy. Compared to the EFV group, subjects assigned to ATV-r had a trend towards higher mean percentage increase in VAT. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00118898.

Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG A5202. [2011.06.15]
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)-lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed... CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ABC-3TC, TDF-FTC-treated participants had significantly greater decreases in spine and hip BMD, whereas ATV/r led to more significant losses in spine, but not hip, BMD than EFV. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00118898.

Recommendation of lamivudine-to-entecavir switching treatment in chronic hepatitis B responders: Randomized controlled trial. [2011.06]
Aim: In the 2007-2008 guidelines of the study group (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan), lamivudine (LAM)-continuous treatment was recommended in patients treated with LAM for more than 3 years who maintained hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA less than 2.6 log copies/mL, because in these patients LAM resistance might exist and switching treatment to entecavir (ETV) might cause ETV resistance...

more studies >>

Clinical Trials Related to Epivir (Lamivudine)

Efficacy Study of Different Laboratory Management Strategies and Drug Regimens in HIV-infected Children in Africa [Completed]
The two original objectives were to determine in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART): 1. Whether clinically driven monitoring (CDM) will have a similar outcome in terms of disease progression or death as routine laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) for toxicity (haematology/biochemistry) and efficacy (CD4)? 2. Whether induction with four drugs from two ART classes followed by maintenance with three drugs after 36 weeks be more effective than a continuous non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based triple drug regimen in terms of CD4 and clinical outcome? Two secondary objectives were to determine 3. Whether changing from twice daily lamivudine+abacavir to once daily lamivudine+abacavir after 48 weeks on ART will have a similar outcome in terms of virological suppression and will result in improvements in adherence to ART? 4. Whether stopping daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in children over 3 years of age who have been on ART for at least 96 weeks has a similar outcome in terms of hospitalisation or death as continuing daily cotrimoxazole?

Lamivudine Therapy in Patients With Prior Entecavir Treatment and Undetectable Viral Load [Active, not recruiting]
Patients with chronic hepatitis B and treated with entecavir for over 6 months (with no previous other antiviral treatment) will be invited to participate in this study. They will be eligible if their liver tests are normal and their viral load is undetectable. Patients will be switched to lamivudine treatment to assess whether lamivudine can maintain adequate suppression of the hepatitis B virus after successful treatment with entecavir. Patients will be monitored closely after switching treatment at 1 months and then every 3 monthly. If there is any evidence of increase in viral load then patients will be given the option of changing back to entecavir.

Comparison Between Lamivudine and Entecavir Treatment in Patients [Recruiting]
This is a prospective, observational, open-label, 2-arm, parallel, multi-center study. Patients with HBV-associated severe acute exacerbation for whom the treatment with NRTI (such as lamivudine and entecavir) is medically recommended will be screened for eligibility. To target 88 evaluable subjects, approximately 98 patients should be recruited into this trial. After enrollment, all eligible subjects will be randomly assigned to one of the antiviral treatments below.

- Cohort 1: Lamivudine 100 mg p. o. q. d.

- Cohort 2: Entecavir 0. 5 mg p. o. q. d. This process will be stratified by prolonged PT, <

4 sec / 4-6 sec / > 6 sec. Both lamivudine and entecavir will be taken once daily and the first dose of observational drug should be administered on Day 1. The observational period of individual subject will be 12 weeks; however, both treatments could be continued after the end of study based on physician's clinical judgment. The efficacy and safety data will be collected at baseline, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 29 and 85 days after initiation of antiviral treatment. All assessments should be conducted based on routine practice of each hospital. Only the analysis of HBV DNA and anti-HDV will be performed in the central lab. For patients who are willing to provide the residual samples of HBV DNA assessment, the blood samples will be preserved appropriately. All AE(s) and SAE will be followed until resolution or the event is considered stable.

To Determine if There Are Pharmacokinetic Interactions at Plasma or Intracellular Level Between Nucleosides and Tenofovir [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to evaluate if there are pharmacokinetic interactions between the NRTI 3TC and ABV, and the TDF nucleotide. For this purpose, the intracellular and plasma levels of 3TC and ABV will be compared in patients given these nucleosides with TDF and 30 days after the interruption of the TDF.

A Trial Evaluating Maintenance Therapy With Lamivudine (Epivir) and Dolutegravir (Tivicay) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) Infected Patients Virologically Suppressed With Triple Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (ANRS 167 Lamidol) [Not yet recruiting]
The principal objective is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy of 48 weeks treatment with the two-drugs combination dolutegravir(Tivicay®) and lamivudine(TEpivir®) in HIV-1 infected patients virologically suppressed with triple HAART.

more trials >>

Reports of Suspected Epivir (Lamivudine) Side Effects

Maternal Exposure During Pregnancy (31)Abortion Spontaneous (24)Foetal Exposure During Pregnancy (15)Rash (13)Pyrexia (11)Premature Baby (10)Anaemia (10)Neutropenia (10)Exomphalos (8)Death (8)more >>


Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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