Mechanism of Action
Prasugrel is an inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation through the irreversible binding of its active metabolite to the P2Y12 class of ADP receptors on platelets.
Prasugrel produces inhibition of platelet aggregation to 20 Î¼M or 5 Î¼M ADP, as measured by light transmission aggregometry. Following a 60-mg loading dose of Effient, approximately 90% of patients had at least 50% inhibition of platelet aggregation by 1 hour. Maximum platelet inhibition was about 80% (Figure 2). Mean steady-state inhibition of platelet aggregation was about 70% following 3 to 5 days of dosing at 10 mg daily after a 60-mg loading dose of Effient.
Figure 2: Inhibition (Mean±SD) of 20 Î¼M ADP-induced Platelet Aggregation (IPA) Measured by Light Transmission Aggregometry after Prasugrel 60 mg
Platelet aggregation gradually returns to baseline values over 5-9 days after discontinuation of prasugrel, this time course being a reflection of new platelet production rather than pharmacokinetics of prasugrel. Discontinuing clopidogrel 75 mg and initiating prasugrel 10 mg with the next dose resulted in increased inhibition of platelet aggregation, but not greater than that typically produced by a 10 mg maintenance dose of prasugrel alone. The relationship between inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical activity has not been established.
Prasugrel is a prodrug and is rapidly metabolized to a pharmacologically active metabolite and inactive metabolites. The active metabolite has an elimination half-life of about 7 hours (range 2-15 hours). Healthy subjects, patients with stable atherosclerosis, and patients undergoing PCI show similar pharmacokinetics.
Absorption and Binding - Following oral administration, ≥ 79% of the dose is absorbed. The absorption and metabolism are rapid, with peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the active metabolite occurring approximately 30 minutes after dosing. The active metabolite's exposure (AUC) increases slightly more than proportionally over the dose range of 5 to 60 mg. Repeated daily doses of 10 mg do not lead to accumulation of the active metabolite. In a study of healthy subjects given a single 15 mg dose, the AUC of the active metabolite was unaffected by a high fat, high calorie meal, but Cmax was decreased by 49% and Tmax was increased from 0.5 to 1.5 hours. Effient can be administered without regard to food. The active metabolite is bound about 98% to human serum albumin.
Metabolism and Elimination - Prasugrel is not detected in plasma following oral administration. It is rapidly hydrolyzed in the intestine to a thiolactone, which is then converted to the active metabolite by a single step, primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and to a lesser extent by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. The estimates of apparent volume of distribution of prasugrel's active metabolite ranged from 44 to 68 L and the estimates of apparent clearance ranged from 112 to 166 L/hr in healthy subjects and patients with stable atherosclerosis. The active metabolite is metabolized to two inactive compounds by S-methylation or conjugation with cysteine. The major inactive metabolites are highly bound to human plasma proteins. Approximately 68% of the prasugrel dose is excreted in the urine and 27% in the feces as inactive metabolites.
Pediatric - Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel have not been evaluated in a pediatric population [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Geriatric - In a study of 32 healthy subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 years, age had no significant effect on pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite or its inhibition of platelet aggregation. In TRITON-TIMI 38, the mean exposure (AUC) of the active metabolite was 19% higher in patients ≥75 years of age than in patients <75 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Body Weight - The mean exposure (AUC) to the active metabolite is approximately 30 to 40% higher in subjects with a body weight of <60 kg than in those weighing ≥60 kg [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Gender - Pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite are similar in men and women.
Ethnicity - Exposure in subjects of African and Hispanic descent is similar to that in Caucasians. In clinical pharmacology studies, after adjusting for body weight, the AUC of the active metabolite was approximately 19% higher in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean subjects than in Caucasian subjects.
Smoking - Pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite are similar in smokers and nonsmokers.
Renal Impairment - Pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite and its inhibition of platelet aggregation are similar in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCL=30 to 50 mL/min) and healthy subjects. In patients with end stage renal disease, exposure to the active metabolite (both Cmax and AUC(0-tlast)) was about half that in healthy controls and patients with moderate renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Hepatic Impairment - Pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite and inhibition of platelet aggregation were similar in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel's active metabolite in patients with severe hepatic disease have not been studied [see Warnings and Precautions and Use in Specific Populations (8.8)].
Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Prasugrel
Inhibitors of CYP3A - Ketoconazole (400 mg daily), a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, did not affect prasugrel-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation or the active metabolite's AUC and Tmax, but decreased the Cmax by 34% to 46%. Therefore, CYP3A inhibitors such as verapamil, diltiazem, indinavir, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and grapefruit juice are not expected to have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of prasugrel [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Inducers of Cytochromes P450 - Rifampicin (600 mg daily), a potent inducer of CYP3A and CYP2B6 and an inducer of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2C8, did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite or its inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, known CYP3A inducers such as rifampicin, carbamazepine, and other inducers of cytochromes P450 are not expected to have significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of prasugrel [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Drugs that Elevate Gastric pH - Daily coadministration of ranitidine (an H2 blocker) or lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) decreased the Cmax of the prasugrel active metabolite by 14% and 29%, respectively, but did not change the active metabolite's AUC and Tmax. In TRITON-TIMI 38, Effient was administered without regard to coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor or H2 blocker [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Statins - Atorvastatin (80 mg daily), a drug metabolized by CYP450 3A4, did not alter the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite or its inhibition of platelet aggregation [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Heparin - A single intravenous dose of unfractionated heparin (100 U/kg) did not significantly alter coagulation or the prasugrel-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation; however, bleeding time was increased compared with either drug alone [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Aspirin - Aspirin 150 mg daily did not alter prasugrel-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation; however, bleeding time was increased compared with either drug alone [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Warfarin - A significant prolongation of the bleeding time was observed when prasugrel was coadministered with 15 mg of warfarin [see Drug Interactions ].
Potential for Prasugrel to Affect Other Drugs
In vitro metabolism studies demonstrate that prasugrel's main circulating metabolites are not likely to cause clinically significant inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A, or induction of CYP1A2 or CYP3A.
Drugs Metabolized by CYP2B6 â€” Prasugrel is a weak inhibitor of CYP2B6. In healthy subjects, prasugrel decreased exposure to hydroxybupropion, a CYP2B6-mediated metabolite of bupropion, by 23%, an amount not considered clinically significant. Prasugrel is not anticipated to have significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP2B6, such as halothane, cyclophosphamide, propofol, and nevirapine.
Effect on Digoxin - The potential role of prasugrel as a Pgp substrate was not evaluated. Prasugrel is not an inhibitor of Pgp, as digoxin clearance was not affected by prasugrel coadministration [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
There is no relevant effect of genetic variation in CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP3A5 on the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel's active metabolite or its inhibition of platelet aggregation.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis - No compound-related tumors were observed in a 2-year rat study with prasugrel at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (>100 times the recommended therapeutic exposures in humans (based on plasma exposures to the major circulating human metabolite). There was an increased incidence of tumors (hepatocellular adenomas) in mice exposed for 2 years to high doses (>250 times the human metabolite exposure).
Mutagenesis - Prasugrel was not genotoxic in two in vitro tests (Ames bacterial gene mutation test, clastogenicity assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts) and in one in vivo test (micronucleus test by intraperitoneal route in mice).
Impairment of Fertility - Prasugrel had no effect on fertility of male and female rats at oral doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (80 times the human major metabolite exposure at daily dose of 10 mg prasugrel).