IMPORTANT - Antidote for Peripheral Ischemia - To prevent sloughing and necrosis in ischemic areas, the area should be infiltrated as soon as possible with 10 to 15 mL of saline solution containing 5 to 10 mg of Regitine ® (brand of phentolamine), an adrenergic blocking agent. A syringe with a fine hypodermic needle should be used, and the solution liberally infiltrated throughout the ischemic area. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours. Therefore, phentolamine should be given as soon as possible after the extravasation is noted.
Dopamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear, practically colorless, aqueous, additive solution for intravenous infusion after dilution. Each mL contains either 40 mg, 80 mg, or 160 mg dopamine HCl, USP (equivalent to 32.3 mg, 64.6 mg and 129.2 mg dopamine base respectively) in Water for Injection, USP, containing 9 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant. The pH range (2.5 to 5.0) may be adjusted with citric acid and/or sodium citrate. The solution is sterile and nonpyrogenic. Dopamine HCl, a naturally occurring catecholamine, is an inotropic vasopressor agent. Its chemical name is 3,4 dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride and its chemical structure is.
DOPAMINE is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarctions, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Where appropriate, restoration of blood volume with a suitable plasma expander or whole blood should be instituted or completed prior to administration of DOPAMINE.
Patients most likely to respond adequately to DOPAMINE are those in whom physiological parameters, such as urine flow, myocardial function, and blood pressure, have not undergone profound deterioration. Multiclinic trials indicate that the shorter the time interval between onset of signs and symptoms and initiation of therapy with volume correction and DOPAMINE, the better the prognosis.
Poor Perfusion of Vital Organs: Urine flow appears to be one of the better diagnostic signs by which adequacy of vital organ perfusion can be monitored. Nevertheless, the physician should also observe the patient for signs of reversal of confusion of comatose condition. Loss of pallor, increase in toe temperature, and/or adequacy of nail bed capillary filling may also be used as indices of adequate dosage. Clinical studies have shown that when DOPAMINE is administered before urine flow has diminished to levels approximating 0.3 mL/minute, prognosis is more favorable. Nevertheless, in a number of oliguric or anuric patients, administration of DOPAMINE has resulted in an increase in urine flow which in some cases reached normal levels. DOPAMINE may also increase urine flow in patients whose output is within normal limits and thus may be of value in reducing the degree of preexisting fluid accumulation. It should be noted that at doses above those optimal for the individual patient urine flow may decrease, necessitating reduction of dosage. Concurrent administration of DOPAMINE and diuretic agents may produce an additive or potentiating effect.
Low Cardiac Output: Increased cardiac output is related to the direct inotropic effect of DOPAMINE on the myocardium. Increased cardiac output at low or moderate doses appears to be related to a favorable prognosis. Increase in cardiac output has been associated with either static or decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Static or decreased SVR associated with low or moderate increments in cardiac output is believed to be a reflection of differential effects on specific vascular beds with increased resistance in peripheral beds (e.g., femoral) and concomitant decreases in mesenteric and renal vascular beds. Redistribution of blood flow parallels these changes so that an increase in cardiac output is accompanied by an increase in mesenteric and renal blood flow. In many instances the renal fraction of the total cardiac output has been found to increase. The increase in cardiac output produced by DOPAMINE is not associated with substantial decreases in systemic vascular resistance as may occur with isoproterenol.
Hypotension: Hypotension due to inadequate cardiac output can be managed by administration of low to moderate doses of DOPAMINE, which have little effect on SVR. At high therapeutic doses, the alpha adrenergic activity of DOPAMINE becomes more prominent and thus may correct hypotension due to diminished SVR. As in the case of other circulatory decompensation states, prognosis is better in patients whose blood pressure and urine flow have not undergone profound deterioration. Therefore, it is suggested that the physician administer DOPAMINE as soon as a definite trend toward decreased systolic and diastolic pressure becomes evident.
Media Articles Related to Dopamine
The importance of brain reward pathway
Source: Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal Drugs News From Medical News Today [2014.11.16]
NIH study in rodents identifies a pathway that starts with glutamate and ends with activation of dopamine reward systemDetails of the role of glutamate, the brain's excitatory chemical, in a...
Breakthrough in stem cell treatment for Parkinson's
Source: Stem Cell Research News From Medical News Today [2014.11.07]
In a new study, researchers say it is possible to make dopamine cells from embryonic stem cells and transplant them into the brain, paving the way for a new Parkinson's treatment.
Supercomputer used to study a common link between addiction and neurological disease
Source: ADHD News From Medical News Today [2014.07.25]
Recent published research in the Journal of Clinical Investigation demonstrates how changes in dopamine signaling and dopamine transporter function are linked to neurological and psychiatric...
Published Studies Related to Dopamine
Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney
function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation... CONCLUSION: Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine
Efficacy and safety of dopamine agonists in restless legs syndrome. 
agonists (DAs), the first-line treatment of RLS... CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that DAs have moderate efficacy in the
Pharmacokinetics and central nervous system effects of the novel dopamine D3
receptor antagonist GSK598809 and intravenous alcohol infusion at pseudo-steady
GSK598809 is a novel selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist, currently in
development for the treatment of substance abuse and addiction. In a blinded,
randomized, placebo-controlled study, effects of single oral doses of 175 mg
GSK598809 were evaluated in healthy volunteers.CNS effects of
co-administration were mainly additive, except a small supra-additive increase in
saccadic reaction time and decrease in delayed word recall.
Effects of donor pre-treatment with dopamine on survival after heart transplantation: a cohort study of heart transplant recipients nested in a randomized controlled multicenter trial. [2011.10.18]
OBJECTIVES: We determined the outcome of cardiac allografts from multiorgan donors enrolled in a randomized trial of donor pre-treatment with dopamine. BACKGROUND: Treatment of the brain-dead donor with low-dose dopamine improves immediate graft function after kidney transplantation... CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of brain-dead donors with dopamine of 4 mug/kg/min will not harm cardiac allografts but appears to improve the clinical course of the heart allograft recipient. (Prospective Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Donor Preconditioning With Dopamine on Initial Graft Function After Kidney Transplantation; NCT00115115). Copyright (c) 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of working-memory training on striatal dopamine release. [2011.08.05]
Updating of working memory has been associated with striato-frontal brain regions and phasic dopaminergic neurotransmission. We assessed raclopride binding to striatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptors during a letter-updating task and a control condition before and after 5 weeks of updating training... These findings highlight the pivotal role of transient neural processes associated with D2 receptor activity in working memory.
Clinical Trials Related to Dopamine
Study of Dopamine Versus Vasopressin for Treatment of Low Blood Pressure in Low Birth Weight Infants [Recruiting]
Low blood pressure or hypotension is a very important problem that is often seen in
premature babies, especially those with low birth weight. Severe hypotension leads to
significant problems including brain bleeds, developmental delays, kidney and liver
problems, and other issues that can affect babies for the rest of their lives. An important
aspect in the management of infants with hypotension is the decision of when to treat and
with what agent. Research is being conducted to try to find the best medication to use in
these situations. Dopamine is often used first, but it does not always prove to be
effective, and it has several concerning side effects. This study will look at vasopressin,
which has fewer side effects, as a first-line medication for low blood pressure in extremely
low birth weight infants.
Hypotheses and Specific Aims: This study will show superiority of vasopressin to dopamine in
preterm, extremely low birth weight infants who have hypotension within the first 24 hours
of life. We will specifically look at its ability to raise blood pressure values, improve
clinical symptoms seen, any adverse effects, and clinical outcomes of babies being treated.
Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure II [Recruiting]
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of 1) high-dose furosemide, 2) low-dose
furosemide, and 3) low-dose furosemide combined with low-dose dopamine on diuresis, clinical
status, renal function, electrolyte balance, length of stay, and 60-day post-discharge
outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure.
Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DAD-HF) Trial [Recruiting]
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of high-dose furosemide versus low-dose
furosemide combined with low-dose dopamine on diuresis, renal function, electrolyte balance,
and 60-day post-discharge outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart
A Brain Imaging Study Into Nicotine Induced Dopamine Release in Cigarette Smokers. [Recruiting]
Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in nicotine (and other) addiction and this drug is known
to release DA in brain areas mediating reward and motivational processes. Although imaging
studies show that release of DA follows smoking, little is known regarding how common
genetic polymorphisms for three genes associated in some studies with smoking (dopamine D2
receptor, dopamine and serotonin transporter) interact with smoking status and modulate
individual differences in nicotine-induced DA release and dopamine receptor occupancy, in
vivo. The current proposal combines brain imaging and genomics ('imaging genomics') towards
partially unraveling the complex relationship between smoking phenotype and common
polymorphisms. Understanding whether genetic factors contribute to inter-individual
variability in smoking is crucial for interpreting imaging results in the context of disease
pathology. We hypothesize that a model of vulnerability to addiction based on interactions
between genotype, receptor and transporter availability and in vivo nicotine-induced DA
release will elucidate some of the fundamental neurochemical and neurogenetic circuits
Dopamine Versus Dobutamine for Treatment of Arterial Hypotension in Term and Preterm Neonates [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Dobutamine as compared to Dopamine in
term and preterm neonates with arterial hypotension on cerebral and renal oxygenation,
fractional tissue oxygen extraction, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output.
The investigators hypothesize that Dopamine has a stronger effect on blood pressure than
Dobutamine but Dobutamine has a stronger effect on cerebral oxygenation and cardiac output
Page last updated: 2014-11-16