IMPORTANT - Antidote for Peripheral Ischemia - To prevent sloughing and necrosis in ischemic areas, the area should be infiltrated as soon as possible with 10 to 15 mL of saline solution containing 5 to 10 mg of Regitine ® (brand of phentolamine), an adrenergic blocking agent. A syringe with a fine hypodermic needle should be used, and the solution liberally infiltrated throughout the ischemic area. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours. Therefore, phentolamine should be given as soon as possible after the extravasation is noted.
Dopamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear, practically colorless, aqueous, additive solution for intravenous infusion after dilution. Each mL contains either 40 mg, 80 mg, or 160 mg dopamine HCl, USP (equivalent to 32.3 mg, 64.6 mg and 129.2 mg dopamine base respectively) in Water for Injection, USP, containing 9 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant. The pH range (2.5 to 5.0) may be adjusted with citric acid and/or sodium citrate. The solution is sterile and nonpyrogenic. Dopamine HCl, a naturally occurring catecholamine, is an inotropic vasopressor agent. Its chemical name is 3,4 dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride and its chemical structure is.
DOPAMINE is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarctions, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Where appropriate, restoration of blood volume with a suitable plasma expander or whole blood should be instituted or completed prior to administration of DOPAMINE.
Patients most likely to respond adequately to DOPAMINE are those in whom physiological parameters, such as urine flow, myocardial function, and blood pressure, have not undergone profound deterioration. Multiclinic trials indicate that the shorter the time interval between onset of signs and symptoms and initiation of therapy with volume correction and DOPAMINE, the better the prognosis.
Poor Perfusion of Vital Organs: Urine flow appears to be one of the better diagnostic signs by which adequacy of vital organ perfusion can be monitored. Nevertheless, the physician should also observe the patient for signs of reversal of confusion of comatose condition. Loss of pallor, increase in toe temperature, and/or adequacy of nail bed capillary filling may also be used as indices of adequate dosage. Clinical studies have shown that when DOPAMINE is administered before urine flow has diminished to levels approximating 0.3 mL/minute, prognosis is more favorable. Nevertheless, in a number of oliguric or anuric patients, administration of DOPAMINE has resulted in an increase in urine flow which in some cases reached normal levels. DOPAMINE may also increase urine flow in patients whose output is within normal limits and thus may be of value in reducing the degree of preexisting fluid accumulation. It should be noted that at doses above those optimal for the individual patient urine flow may decrease, necessitating reduction of dosage. Concurrent administration of DOPAMINE and diuretic agents may produce an additive or potentiating effect.
Low Cardiac Output: Increased cardiac output is related to the direct inotropic effect of DOPAMINE on the myocardium. Increased cardiac output at low or moderate doses appears to be related to a favorable prognosis. Increase in cardiac output has been associated with either static or decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Static or decreased SVR associated with low or moderate increments in cardiac output is believed to be a reflection of differential effects on specific vascular beds with increased resistance in peripheral beds (e.g., femoral) and concomitant decreases in mesenteric and renal vascular beds. Redistribution of blood flow parallels these changes so that an increase in cardiac output is accompanied by an increase in mesenteric and renal blood flow. In many instances the renal fraction of the total cardiac output has been found to increase. The increase in cardiac output produced by DOPAMINE is not associated with substantial decreases in systemic vascular resistance as may occur with isoproterenol.
Hypotension: Hypotension due to inadequate cardiac output can be managed by administration of low to moderate doses of DOPAMINE, which have little effect on SVR. At high therapeutic doses, the alpha adrenergic activity of DOPAMINE becomes more prominent and thus may correct hypotension due to diminished SVR. As in the case of other circulatory decompensation states, prognosis is better in patients whose blood pressure and urine flow have not undergone profound deterioration. Therefore, it is suggested that the physician administer DOPAMINE as soon as a definite trend toward decreased systolic and diastolic pressure becomes evident.
Media Articles Related to Dopamine
Schizophrenia: Impaired activity of the selective dopamine neurons
Source: Schizophrenia News From Medical News Today [2015.02.19]
German-American team of researchers finds neurophysiological correlates for cognitive and emotional symptoms in a Schizophrenia mouse model.
Study on dopamine neurons could instruct research into mobility and neurological disorders
Source: Schizophrenia News From Medical News Today [2015.02.02]
University of Leicester team find for the first time when and why dopamine releasing cells in the forebrain are activated Dopamine releasing cells in the forebrain are difficult to access in...
New Internal Clock Identified
Source: Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health Headlines [2015.02.27]
Researchers have identified a second internal clock in the brain that is desynchronized by changes in dopamine tone, leading to aberrant patterns of arousal similar those in bipolar disorder.
Medscape Medical News
Parkinson's trial suggests growth factor has regenerative effects in brain
Source: Biology / Biochemistry News From Medical News Today [2015.02.19]
Small trial to test safety and tolerability of the growth factor PDGF in Parkinson's patients finds it not only stops deterioration of dopamine signaling, but may even increase it.
Common pesticide may increase risk of ADHD
Source: ADHD News From Medical News Today [2015.02.02]
Rutgers study suggests that pregnant women and young children are more susceptibleA commonly used pesticide may alter the development of the brain's dopamine system -- responsible for emotional...
Published Studies Related to Dopamine
Melatonin and dopamine as biomarkers to optimize treatment in phenylketonuria:
effects of tryptophan and tyrosine supplementation. 
phenylketonuria treated with large neutral amino acid (LNAA) tablets... CONCLUSION: Melatonin levels were not increased with the higher dose of Trp
Dopamine agonist monotherapy in Parkinson's disease and potential risk factors
for dyskinesia: a meta-analysis of levodopa-controlled trials. 
disorder have never been systematically assessed... CONCLUSION: Initial DA treatment encompasses a lower risk for dyskinesia even
Association of dopamine-related genetic loci to dopamine D3 receptor antagonist
ABT-925 clinical response. 
ABT-925, a selective dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) antagonist, was tested in
schizophrenia. A DRD3 gene polymorphism results in an S9G amino-acid change that
has been associated with lower risk of schizophrenia, higher affinity for
dopamine and some antipsychotics, and differential response to some
The role of dopamine in inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers: a
pharmacological fMRI study. 
Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in
inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural
network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance
dependence have been widely investigated...
Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney
function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation... CONCLUSION: Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine
Clinical Trials Related to Dopamine
Study of Dopamine Versus Vasopressin for Treatment of Low Blood Pressure in Low Birth Weight Infants [Recruiting]
Low blood pressure or hypotension is a very important problem that is often seen in
premature babies, especially those with low birth weight. Severe hypotension leads to
significant problems including brain bleeds, developmental delays, kidney and liver
problems, and other issues that can affect babies for the rest of their lives. An important
aspect in the management of infants with hypotension is the decision of when to treat and
with what agent. Research is being conducted to try to find the best medication to use in
these situations. Dopamine is often used first, but it does not always prove to be
effective, and it has several concerning side effects. This study will look at vasopressin,
which has fewer side effects, as a first-line medication for low blood pressure in extremely
low birth weight infants.
Hypotheses and Specific Aims: This study will show superiority of vasopressin to dopamine in
preterm, extremely low birth weight infants who have hypotension within the first 24 hours
of life. We will specifically look at its ability to raise blood pressure values, improve
clinical symptoms seen, any adverse effects, and clinical outcomes of babies being treated.
Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure II [Recruiting]
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of 1) high-dose furosemide, 2) low-dose
furosemide, and 3) low-dose furosemide combined with low-dose dopamine on diuresis, clinical
status, renal function, electrolyte balance, length of stay, and 60-day post-discharge
outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure.
Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine the benefits and safety of intravenous
administration of low dose nesiritide or low dose dopamine in patients with congestive heart
failure and kidney dysfunction.
A Study to Evaluate Safinamide's Effect on Dopamine and Serotonin's Availability by Using Brain Imaging [Recruiting]
This is a study of safinamide, an investigational drug for Parkinson disease (PD).
Safinamide is being developed as add-on therapy for the treatment of Parkinson disease. It
is theorized that safinamide acts by increasing the available dopamine in those areas of
the brain where dopamine is decreased as a result of Parkinson;s Disease. . Dopamine in
the brain is involved in controlling body movements. Safinamide has been extensively
studied in animals, and has been shown to increase the level of dopamine in these animals.
Safinamide has also been tested in patients with Parkinson disease. The goal of this
research trial is to see if safinamide is safe and well tolerated and to better understand
how it affects the dopamine system in the brain in individuals with Parkinson disease. Data
from this trial may provide essential information about the effectiveness and safety of
these doses of safinamide in patients with early Parkinson disease, who are already
receiving a stable dose of their normal Parkinson disease treatment.
Changes in Dopamine Levels Before and After Weight Restoration in People With Anorexia Nervosa [Recruiting]
This study will use positron emission tomography imaging to investigate changes in dopamine
systems in people with anorexia nervosa before and after weight restoration.
Page last updated: 2015-02-27