IMPORTANT - Antidote for Peripheral Ischemia - To prevent sloughing and necrosis in ischemic areas, the area should be infiltrated as soon as possible with 10 to 15 mL of saline solution containing 5 to 10 mg of Regitine ® (brand of phentolamine), an adrenergic blocking agent. A syringe with a fine hypodermic needle should be used, and the solution liberally infiltrated throughout the ischemic area. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours. Therefore, phentolamine should be given as soon as possible after the extravasation is noted.
Dopamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear, practically colorless, aqueous, additive solution for intravenous infusion after dilution. Each mL contains either 40 mg, 80 mg, or 160 mg dopamine HCl, USP (equivalent to 32.3 mg, 64.6 mg and 129.2 mg dopamine base respectively) in Water for Injection, USP, containing 9 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant. The pH range (2.5 to 5.0) may be adjusted with citric acid and/or sodium citrate. The solution is sterile and nonpyrogenic. Dopamine HCl, a naturally occurring catecholamine, is an inotropic vasopressor agent.
DOPAMINE is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarctions, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Where appropriate, restoration of blood volume with a suitable plasma expander or whole blood should be instituted or completed prior to administration of DOPAMINE.
Patients most likely to respond adequately to DOPAMINE are those in whom physiological parameters, such as urine flow, myocardial function, and blood pressure, have not undergone profound deterioration. Multiclinic trials indicate that the shorter the time interval between onset of signs and symptoms and initiation of therapy with volume correction and DOPAMINE, the better the prognosis.
Poor Perfusion of Vital Organs: Urine flow appears to be one of the better diagnostic signs by which adequacy of vital organ perfusion can be monitored. Nevertheless, the physician should also observe the patient for signs of reversal of confusion of comatose condition. Loss of pallor, increase in toe temperature, and/or adequacy of nail bed capillary filling may also be used as indices of adequate dosage. Clinical studies have shown that when DOPAMINE is administered before urine flow has diminished to levels approximating 0.3 mL/minute, prognosis is more favorable. Nevertheless, in a number of oliguric or anuric patients, administration of DOPAMINE has resulted in an increase in urine flow which in some cases reached normal levels. DOPAMINE may also increase urine flow in patients whose output is within normal limits and thus may be of value in reducing the degree of preexisting fluid accumulation. It should be noted that at doses above those optimal for the individual patient urine flow may decrease, necessitating reduction of dosage. Concurrent administration of DOPAMINE and diuretic agents may produce an additive or potentiating effect.
Low Cardiac Output: Increased cardiac output is related to the direct inotropic effect of DOPAMINE on the myocardium. Increased cardiac output at low or moderate doses appears to be related to a favorable prognosis. Increase in cardiac output has been associated with either static or decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Static or decreased SVR associated with low or moderate increments in cardiac output is believed to be a reflection of differential effects on specific vascular beds with increased resistance in peripheral beds (e.g., femoral) and concomitant decreases in mesenteric and renal vascular beds. Redistribution of blood flow parallels these changes so that an increase in cardiac output is accompanied by an increase in mesenteric and renal blood flow. In many instances the renal fraction of the total cardiac output has been found to increase. The increase in cardiac output produced by DOPAMINE is not associated with substantial decreases in systemic vascular resistance as may occur with isoproterenol.
Hypotension: Hypotension due to inadequate cardiac output can be managed by administration of low to moderate doses of DOPAMINE, which have little effect on SVR. At high therapeutic doses, the alpha adrenergic activity of DOPAMINE becomes more prominent and thus may correct hypotension due to diminished SVR. As in the case of other circulatory decompensation states, prognosis is better in patients whose blood pressure and urine flow have not undergone profound deterioration. Therefore, it is suggested that the physician administer DOPAMINE as soon as a definite trend toward decreased systolic and diastolic pressure becomes evident.
Media Articles Related to Dopamine
Marijuana use may reduce dopamine in the brain
Source: Biology / Biochemistry News From Medical News Today [2016.04.15]
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter, but a new study finds that heavy marijuana use could lower its release, causing negative effects on learning and behavior.
Dopamine key to vocal learning, songbird study finds
Source: Hearing / Deafness News From Medical News Today [2016.03.16]
The neurotransmitter dopamine is essential to correcting vocal mistakes, suggests a study on Bengalese finches.
Published Studies Related to Dopamine
Melatonin and dopamine as biomarkers to optimize treatment in phenylketonuria:
effects of tryptophan and tyrosine supplementation. 
phenylketonuria treated with large neutral amino acid (LNAA) tablets... CONCLUSION: Melatonin levels were not increased with the higher dose of Trp
Dopamine agonist monotherapy in Parkinson's disease and potential risk factors
for dyskinesia: a meta-analysis of levodopa-controlled trials. 
disorder have never been systematically assessed... CONCLUSION: Initial DA treatment encompasses a lower risk for dyskinesia even
Association of dopamine-related genetic loci to dopamine D3 receptor antagonist
ABT-925 clinical response. 
ABT-925, a selective dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) antagonist, was tested in
schizophrenia. A DRD3 gene polymorphism results in an S9G amino-acid change that
has been associated with lower risk of schizophrenia, higher affinity for
dopamine and some antipsychotics, and differential response to some
The role of dopamine in inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers: a
pharmacological fMRI study. 
Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in
inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural
network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance
dependence have been widely investigated...
Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney
function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation... CONCLUSION: Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine
Clinical Trials Related to Dopamine
Study of Dopamine Versus Vasopressin for Treatment of Low Blood Pressure in Low Birth Weight Infants [Completed]
Low blood pressure or hypotension is a very important problem that is often seen in
premature babies, especially those with low birth weight. Severe hypotension leads to
significant problems including brain bleeds, developmental delays, kidney and liver
problems, and other issues that can affect babies for the rest of their lives. An important
aspect in the management of infants with hypotension is the decision of when to treat and
with what agent. Research is being conducted to try to find the best medication to use in
these situations. Dopamine is often used first, but it does not always prove to be
effective, and it has several concerning side effects. This study will look at vasopressin,
which has fewer side effects, as a first-line medication for low blood pressure in extremely
low birth weight infants.
Hypotheses and Specific Aims: This study will show superiority of vasopressin to dopamine in
preterm, extremely low birth weight infants who have hypotension within the first 24 hours
of life. We will specifically look at its ability to raise blood pressure values, improve
clinical symptoms seen, any adverse effects, and clinical outcomes of babies being treated.
Dopamine Versus Norepinephrine for the Treatment of Vasopressor Dependent Septic Shock [Completed]
We are performing a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of dopamine versus
norepinephrine for septic shock. The trial will enroll patients with suspected or documented
site of infection and having 2 out of the three SIRS criteria. Patients will also be
receiving standard of care, early-goal directed therapy including but not limited to fluid
resuscitation, appropriate and early antibiotics, source control and evaluation for
drotrecogin alpha where deemed appropriate, while being supported for septic shock.
Diuretics and Dopamine in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [Recruiting]
Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFPEF) accounts for 40-50% of all heart
failure patients with a frequency of hospital admissions for acute decompensation and short
and long term mortality similar to patients with heart failure with reduced ejection
fraction (HFREF). Patients with HFPEF are often preload dependent and despite admission to
the hospital for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), are typically difficult to
diurese due to the development of acute kidney injury. No studies have been performed
evaluating treatment strategies for these patients. We hypothesize that changing the method
of diuresis and/or the addition of low-dose dopamine for the treatment of ADHF in patients
with HFPEF will reduce renal injury, resulting in a shorter length of stay, and decrease
hospital readmissions over the ensuing year. This trial will randomize patients to either
bolus or continuous infusion furosemide and then to either dopamine or no dopamine. The
primary endpoint will be renal function at 72 hours as measured by change in GFR. Secondary
endpoints for readmission, functional capacity, quality of life, and amount of diuresis will
also be collected.
Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DAD-HF) Trial [Recruiting]
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of high-dose furosemide versus low-dose
furosemide combined with low-dose dopamine on diuresis, renal function, electrolyte balance,
and 60-day post-discharge outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart
Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure II [Terminated]
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of 1) high-dose furosemide, 2) low-dose
furosemide, and 3) low-dose furosemide combined with low-dose dopamine on diuresis, clinical
status, renal function, electrolyte balance, length of stay, and 60-day post-discharge
outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure.
Page last updated: 2016-04-15