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Dopamine Injection (Dopamine Hydrochloride Injection) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology


Aqueous Solutions for Acute Correction of Hemodynamics in Shock States

Flexible Plastic Container

Rx only


Dopamine Hydrochloride in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, prediluted solution of dopamine hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection. It is administered by intravenous infusion.

Each 100 mL contains dopamine hydrochloride 80 mg (0.8 mg/mL), 160 mg (1.6 mg/mL) or 320 mg (3.2 mg/mL) and dextrose, hydrous 5 g in water for injection, with sodium metabisulfite added 50 mg as a stabilizer; osmolar concentration, respectively 261, 269, or 286 mOsmol/liter (calc.), pH 3.8 (2.5 to 4.5). May contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.

Dopamine administered intravenously is a myocardial inotropic agent, which also may increase mesenteric and renal blood flow plus urinary output.

Dopamine Hydrochloride is chemically designated 3, 4-dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (C8H11NO2 • HCl), a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water. It has the following structural formula:

Dopamine (also referred to as 3-hydroxytyramine) is a naturally occurring endogenous catecholamine precursor of norepinephrine.

Dextrose, USP is chemically designated D-glucose monohydrate (C6H12O6 • H2O), a hexose sugar freely soluble in water. It has the following structural formula:

Water for Injection, USP is chemically designated H2O.

The flexible plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated CR3 plastic material. Water can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap but not in amounts sufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials. Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.


Dopamine exhibits an inotropic action on the myocardium, resulting in increased cardiac output. It causes less increase in myocardial oxygen consumption than isoproterenol and the effect of dopamine usually is not associated with tachyarrhythmia. Reported clinical studies have revealed that the drug usually increases systolic and pulse pressure without any or only a minor elevating effect on diastolic pressure. Total peripheral resistance at low and intermediate doses is usually unchanged. Blood flow to peripheral vascular beds may decrease while mesenteric blood flow is increased. The drug also has been reported to produce dilation of the renal vasculature which is accompanied by increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and sodium excretion. Increased urinary output produced by dopamine is usually not associated with decreased urine osmolality.

Solutions containing carbohydrate in the form of dextrose restore blood glucose levels and provide calories. Carbohydrate in the form of dextrose may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. Dextrose injected parenterally undergoes oxidation to carbon dioxide and water.

Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. Average normal adult daily requirement ranges from two to three liters (1.0 to 1.5 liters each for insensible water loss due to perspiration and urine production).

Water balance is maintained by various regulatory mechanisms. Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes and sodium (Na+) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium.

The reported clearance rate of dopamine in critically ill infants and children has ranged from 46 to 168 mL/kg/min, with the higher values seen in the younger patients. The apparent volume of distribution in neonates is reported as 0.6 to 4 L/kg, leading to an elimination half-life of 5 to 11 minutes.

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