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Diuril (Chlorothiazide Sodium) - Summary




DIURIL (Chlorothiazide) is a diuretic and antihypertensive.

DIURIL is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy.

DIURIL has also been found useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction such as nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure.

DIURIL is indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.

Use in Pregnancy. Routine use of diuretics during normal pregnancy is inappropriate and exposes mother and fetus to unnecessary hazard. Diuretics do not prevent development of toxemia of pregnancy and there is no satisfactory evidence that they are useful in the treatment of toxemia.

Edema during pregnancy may arise from pathologic causes or from the physiologic and mechanical consequences of pregnancy. Thiazides are indicated in pregnancy when edema is due to pathologic causes, just as they are in the absence of pregnancy (see PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy). Dependent edema in pregnancy, resulting from restriction of venous return by the gravid uterus, is properly treated through elevation of the lower extremities and use of support stockings. Use of diuretics to lower intravascular volume in this instance is illogical and unnecessary. During normal pregnancy there is hypervolemia which is not harmful to the fetus or the mother in the absence of cardiovascular disease. However, it may be associated with edema, rarely generalized edema. If such edema causes discomfort, increased recumbency will often provide relief. Rarely this edema may cause extreme discomfort which is not relieved by rest. In these instances, a short course of diuretic therapy may provide relief and be appropriate.

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Published Studies Related to Diuril (Chlorothiazide)

Effect of valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and their combination on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure response in elderly patients with systolic hypertension: a ValVET substudy. [2011.08]
BACKGROUND: Stage 2 hypertension often requires combination antihypertensive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is a useful tool for studying antihypertensive drugs and their combinations. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, prompted-titration study of patients of at least 70 years of age with systolic hypertension compared the efficacy of valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and their combination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) reduction... CONCLUSION: In elderly hypertensives, starting combination therapy with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide provides more effective 24-h blood pressure control than the monotherapy components, with few therapy-related side-effects.

A comparison of the efficacy and safety of irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy with irbesartan monotherapy in the treatment of moderate or severe hypertension in diabetic and obese hypertensive patients: a post-hoc analysis review. [2011.07]
Hypertension is difficult to treat in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity. Combination therapies are often required to effectively lower blood pressure (BP) and attain BP goals... In patients with moderate or severe hypertension and with a BMI >/= 30 kg/m(2), initial treatment with irbesartan/HCTZ combination therapy was more effective than irbesartan monotherapy.

Moderate versus intensive treatment of hypertension using amlodipine/valsartan and with the addition of hydrochlorothiazide for patients uncontrolled on angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy: results in racial/ethnic subgroups. [2011.07]
Combination therapy may reduce racial/ethnic differences in response to antihypertensives. In this post-hoc analysis, we evaluated treatment response by race/ethnicity among hypertensive adults enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind study in which patients previously uncontrolled (mean sitting systolic blood pressure [MSSBP] >/=150 and <200 mm Hg) on angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy (other than valsartan) for 28 days or more (n = 728) were randomized to amlodipine/valsartan 10/320 mg (intensive) or 5/160 mg (moderate)...

A titrate-to-goal study of switching patients uncontrolled on antihypertensive monotherapy to fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil +/- hydrochlorothiazide. [2011.06]
In the prospective, open-label, titrate-to-goal Blood Pressure Control in All Subgroups With Hypertension (BP-CRUSH) study, 999 patients with hypertension uncontrolled on monotherapy (mean age, 55.6 +/- 11.4 years; baseline blood pressure [BP], 153.7 +/- 9.2/91.9 +/- 8.6 mm Hg) were switched to fixed-dose amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (AML/OM) 5/20 mg...

Olmesartan/amlodipine vs olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: the OLAS study. [2011.06]
We studied the effects of treatment with olmesartan/amlodipine and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide on inflammatory and metabolic parameters (including new-onset diabetes as a secondary endpoint) in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS)... Both olmesartan-based combinations were effective, but the amlodipine combination resulted in metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects that may have advantages over the hydrochlorothiazide combination.

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Clinical Trials Related to Diuril (Chlorothiazide)

Spironolactone to Decrease Potassium Wasting in Hypercalciurics on Thiazides Diuretics [Recruiting]
Kidney stone formation due to an excess of calcium in the urine is a common problem. It is treated with thiazide diuretics. These drugs often cause excessively low blood potassium levels that in turn require large doses of potassium supplements. These supplements are often large, unpleasant and easy to forget. We are trying the addition of spironolactone to these patients' medications to see if it allows them to take a lower dose of potassium.

Evaluating the Link Between Thiazide Medications, the Nervous System, and Diabetes in Individuals With High Blood Pressure [Recruiting]
Thiazide medications are often prescribed for individuals with high blood pressure, but research has shown that they may increase an individual's risk of developing diabetes. While it is unknown exactly how thiazide causes this response, it is likely that the nervous system is somehow involved. This study will evaluate the role of the nervous system in sugar metabolism, as well as determine the effect of thiazide and other medications on individuals with high blood pressure.

Pharmacosurveillance and Pharmacogenetics of First-Line Diuretics in Hypertension: The StayOnDiur Study [Recruiting]
Background: The use of thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension (HT) is widely considered a first line treatment, given the efficacy and low cost of this class of drugs. This indication is not unanimous, because thiazides can cause metabolic alterations and other side effects increasing cardiac and cerebrovascular risk, which reduce compliance to treatment and increase health care system cost. However, large intervention trials in HT suggest that the improvement in cardiovascular prognosis of HT patients depends more on follow-up procedures than on type of drug used. Furthermore, we have documented improved compliance to antihypertensive therapy by implementing cooperation between general practitioners (GPs) and HT specialists.

Objectives: In a multicenter, open label randomized study we will compare the persistence on therapy of thiazides versus other treatments, as a first line antihypertensive therapy, in a clinical setting characterized by a strict cooperation between GPs and HT specialist. We will also analyse candidate genes with impact on drug-induced metabolic alterations to elucidate the pathophysiology of these phenomena.

Methods: 260 GPs will recruit 2600 hypertensive patients with indication to pharmacological treatment and randomise them to starting treatment with chlortalidone (12. 5 to 25 mg daily, 1300 pts) or a GP decided single drug (excluding thiazides) or combination therapy at highest tolerated dose. In both groups any other class of antihypertensive drugs can be added over time in order to achieve blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg). Follow-up will last 2 years. Blood sample and urine analyses, carotid and cardiac ultrasound will be performed at baseline and scheduled time points. Genotyping will be performed by sequencing. Data will be collected and stored using a web based centralized Case Report Form (CRF) Expected results: Results will highlight whether a follow-up strategy based on tight cooperation between GPs and HT specialists can allow the use of thiazides as first line antihypertensive therapy without any negative effect on persistence, adherence and efficacy of the treatment. These data can be used to reduce total burden of the Health Care System in HT by replacing more expensive drugs with diuretics in the 50% of hypertensive patients, who do not receive this class of drugs. Furthermore, the pharmacogenetic approach may clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of drug-induced metabolic side effects

Treatment of Hypertension [Completed]
To determine whether the long-term treatment of essential hypertension without significant target organ disease materially influenced mortality and/or cardiovascular renal morbidity.

Study of Genotype and Phenotype Expression in Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus [Completed]

I. Determine the relationship between genotype variations and clinical phenotype in patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

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Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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