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Dicloxacillin (Dicloxacillin Sodium) - Summary



Dicloxacillin sodium is a semisynthetic antibiotic substance which resists destruction by the enzyme penicillinase(beta - lactamase). It is monosodium (2 S,5 R,6 R)-6-[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)- 5-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2. 0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. Dicloxacillin is administered orally via capsule form or powder for reconstitution.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of dicloxacillin sodium capsules USP and other antibacterial drugs, dicloxacillin sodium capsules USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Dicloxacillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. Cultures and susceptibility tests should be performed initially to determine the causative organisms and their sensitivity to the drug. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY – Susceptibility Plate Testing) .

Dicloxacillin may be used to initiate therapy in suspected cases of resistant staphylococcal infections prior to the availability of laboratory test results. The penicillinase-resistant penicillins should not be used in infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. If the susceptibility tests indicate that the infection is due to an organism other than a resistant staphylococcus, therapy should not be continued with a penicillinase-resistant penicillin.

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Published Studies Related to Dicloxacillin

Cefuroxime vs a dicloxacillin/chloramphenicol combination for the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema in children. [2002]
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefuroxime, compared with the combination of dicloxacillin/chloramphenicol, for the treatment of children with parapneumonic pleural effusion or empyema. Forty patients, aged 3 months to 5 years, with pleural effusion or empyema were randomized to receive cefuroxime (100 mg/kg/day) IV (n=20) or chloramphenicol (100 mg/kg/day) plus dicloxacillin (200 mg/kg/day) IV (n=20).

Randomized comparison of linezolid (PNU-100766) versus oxacillin-dicloxacillin for treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections. [2000.12]
This randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial compared the efficacy and safety of linezolid, an oxazolidinone, with those of oxacillin-dicloxacillin in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infections. A total of 826 hospitalized adult patients were randomized to receive linezolid (600 mg intravenously [i.v.]) every 12 h or oxacillin (2 g i.v.) every 6 h; following sufficient clinical improvement, patients were switched to the respective oral agents (linezolid [600 mg orally] every 12 h or dicloxacillin [500 mg orally] every 6 hours)...

Dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin: pharmacokinetics, protein binding and serum bactericidal titers in healthy subjects after oral administration. [1995.03]
The pharmacokinetics of dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin were studied in 12 healthy volunteers after oral administration... In conclusion, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin showed similar pharmacokinetic behavior after 0.75 g doses in human volunteers.

Should probenecid be used to reduce the dicloxacillin dosage in orthopaedic infections? A study of the dicloxacillin-saving effect of probenecid. [1994.03]
Reduction in the dosage of dicloxacillin from 500 mg to 250 mg 3 times a day would mean lowering of costs and less side-effects in orthopaedic infections. In this cross-over study, the serum concentrations of dicloxacillin were measured in 9 patients after administration of dicloxacillin 500 mg 3 times a day (dicloxacillin 500 mg) and after co-administration of 250 mg dicloxacillin and 250 mg probenecid 3 times per day (dicloxacillin 250 mg+probenecid 250 mg)...

A comparative study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of azithromycin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin in the treatment of children with acute skin and skin-structure infections. [1993.06]
An open, randomized, multicentre study was undertaken to compare a three-day regimen of azithromycin with a seven-day course of dicloxacillin or flucloxacillin in the treatment of 118 children (aged 2-12 years) with clinically diagnosed acute skin and skin-structure infections... The results of this study suggest that azithromycin is as effective and as well tolerated as a cloxacillin ester antibiotic in the treatment of children with acute skin and skin-structure infections.

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Clinical Trials Related to Dicloxacillin

Antibiotic Treatment for Infections of Short Term In-dwelling Vascular Catheters Due to Gram Positive Bacteria [Completed]
This study will treat patients who have a short term central catheter that is thought to be infected with a specific bacteria (gram positive bacteria)

Patients Response to Early Switch To Oral:Osteomyelitis Study [Not yet recruiting]
Based on the current literature, investigators hypothesize that patients with osteomyelitis who are treated with the standard approach of intravenous antibiotics for the full duration of therapy will have the same clinical outcomes as patients treated with the experimental approach of intravenous antibiotics with early switch to oral antibiotics. The primary objective of this study is to compare patients with osteomyelitis treated with the standard approach of intravenous antibiotics for the full duration of therapy versus patients treated with intravenous antibiotics with an early switch to oral antibiotics in relation to clinical outcomes at 12 months after discontinuation of antibiotic therapy. Secondary objectives of the study include the evaluation of adverse events related to the use of antibiotics as well as the cost of care evaluated from the hospital perspective.

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Reports of Suspected Dicloxacillin Side Effects

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis (4)Skin Discolouration (2)Blister (2)Rash (2)Drug Ineffective (1)Pain (1)Wound Infection Staphylococcal (1)Abdominal Discomfort (1)Arthropathy (1)Blood Creatinine Increased (1)more >>

Page last updated: 2007-10-18

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