Tablets USP C-IV
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Diazepam tablets are indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.
In acute alcohol withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, impending or acute delirium tremens and hallucinosis.
Diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathology (such as inflammation of the muscles or joints, or secondary to trauma); spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders (such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia); athetosis; and stiff-man syndrome.
Oral diazepam may be used adjunctively in convulsive disorders, although it has not proved useful as the sole therapy. The effectiveness of diazepam in long-term use, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Published Studies Related to Diazepam
Valproate versus diazepam for generalized convulsive status epilepticus: a pilot study. [2011.12]
Background and purpose: Evidence-based data to guide the management of status epilepticus (SE) after failure of primary treatment are still scarce and the alternate needs to be found when phenytoin (PHT) is not available or contraindicated. Comparison of intravenous (IV) valproate (VPA) and diazepam (DZP) infusion has not been conducted in adults with SE...
Diazepam pharmacokinetics after nasal drop and atomized nasal administration in dogs. [2011.02]
The standard of care for emergency therapy of seizures in veterinary patients is intravenous (i.v.) administration of benzodiazepines, although rectal administration of diazepam is often recommended for out-of-hospital situations, or when i.v...
Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk. [2011.01]
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone as an anaesthetic induction agent in dogs with moderate to severe systemic disease... CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone resulted in similar cardiorespiratory effects when compared to the fentanyl-diazepam-propofol combination and is a clinically acceptable induction agent in sick dogs.
Diazepam versus clobazam for intermittent prophylaxis of febrile seizures. [2011.01]
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of intermittent clobazam versus diazepam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and assess adverse effects of each drug... CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent clobazam therapy seems advantageous to diazepam due to similar efficacy but significantly lower adverse effects such as drowsiness and sedation.
Pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered intramuscularly by autoinjector versus rectal gel in healthy subjects: a phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover, single-centre study. 
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute repetitive seizures (ARS) are a debilitating part of episodic seizure activity that can sometimes progress to status epilepticus. Currently approved treatment that can be administered by non-medical personnel to patients with ARS is a diazepam rectal gel. While effective, rectal administration can be difficult, inconvenient and objectionable. A diazepam autoinjector has been developed to deliver diazepam via an intramuscular (IM) injection. This study evaluated the dose proportionality of the diazepam autoinjector and the consequent diazepam bioavailability relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam administered rectally as a commercial gel... CONCLUSION: Results of the present study indicated that diazepam can be safely and reliably administered IM using a diazepam autoinjector.
Clinical Trials Related to Diazepam
A Comparison of Lorazepam and Diazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of two commonly used medications in the
treatment of alcohol withdrawal, diazepam and lorazepam.
Comparison of Absorption of Vaginal Diazepam Using Different Delivery Systems [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine which of three delivery systems of vaginal
diazepam have the best systemic absorption, measured by serum diazepam levels. The three
delivery systems are: moistened tablet, suppository or cream. Additionally the study will
compare the side effects and absorption of vaginal diazepam with oral diazepam. Vaginal
diazepam is used off-label vaginally to relax pelvic floor muscles and reduce pelvic pain
caused from pelvic floor dysfunction.
Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) With Diazepam [Not yet recruiting]
PTSD is a pervasive and frequent disorder. Early psychological treatment - but not
pharmacology - effectively prevent PTSD.
Current pharmacological studies did not include treatment given immediately after trauma
However, a recent study of opiates suggests that their early administration may reduce the
likelihood of developing PTSD - possibly by mitigating early post-traumatic distress (UCR) -
within an adequate window of time.
Benzodiazepines are often used to reduce anxiety and agitation during stressful situations -
including traumatic event.
These compounds may increase the likelihood of developing PTSD when administered few days
after the traumatic event - but their effect as an immediate intervention has not been
studied - despite their frequent and uninformed use at this stage.
This work will evaluate the effect of diazepam - a BZ compound - on PTSD symptom trajectory
following traumatic event in a randomized controlled design.
Following the studies of opiates it is hoped that diazepam, administered within hours of the
traumatic event, and before the first night sleep (a memory consolidating condition) will
reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD. However, an adverse effect cannot be excluded, and
thus the investigators posit a bidirectional hypothesis.
The importance of this work is that it will provide the necessary evidence to sanction a
frequently practiced use of benzodiazepines.
Efficacy and Safety Study Comparing Lorazepam and Diazepam for Children in the Emergency Department With Seizures (Status 2) [Recruiting]
Children with seizures are frequently seen in the emergency department. The drug lorazepam,
which is commonly used, is not labeled by the US Food and Drug Administration for children
for this use. The FDA, under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, has requested that
a study comparing diazepam, a drug that is labeled by the FDA for this indication, with
lorazepam be performed. The study will show whether one drug is more effective and safe than
Lofexidine for Inpatient Opiate Detox in Singapore [Recruiting]
In Singapore, opiate substitution medication e. g. methadone is only licensed for use with
specific population. The standard treatment is one week of detoxification assisted with
diazepam and symptomatic treatment followed by one week of rehabilitation. However, diazepam
is highly addictive and widely abused among heroin users and pharmacologically, does not
reduce the physical and psychological craving for opioids which can trigger relapse. Many
opiate patients undergoing inpatient detoxification leave prematurely (i. e. PID: patient
initiated discharge) because of the severity of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. The purpose
of the study is to establish an alternative medication to reduce opiate withdrawal symptoms
for use in Singapore by evaluating the clinical efficacy of Lofexidine versus Diazepam in
the management of the opiate withdrawal syndrome during inpatient detoxification.
Reports of Suspected Diazepam Side Effects
Toxicity TO Various Agents (259),
Completed Suicide (248),
Cardiac Arrest (220),
Respiratory Arrest (199),
Drug Abuse (153),
Cardio-Respiratory Arrest (144),
Drug Interaction (68), more >>
PATIENT REVIEWS / RATINGS / COMMENTS
Based on a total of 9 ratings/reviews, Diazepam has an overall score of 5.67. The effectiveness score is 7.56 and the side effect score is 6.89. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst. Below are selected reviews: the highest, the median and the lowest rated.
Diazepam review by 35 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Highly Effective|
|Side effects:|| || No Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || stress|
|Dosage & duration:|| || 5mg taken when necessary for the period of over a period of years on and off|
|Other conditions:|| || tearfullness.bad dreams|
|Other drugs taken:|| || marvelon|
|Benefits:|| || The drug calmed me down and stopped me from crying constantly.I only took it when absolutely necessary which was a huge benefit, unlike the anti anxiety drugs given out now which you have to take every day for long periods.Valium works instantly and I never had any problems at all with it. I do not understand why it is not given out instead of all these other antidepressants which are readily available and cause huge problems and come with awful side effects.|
|Side effects:|| || None to speak of except for slight tiredness.|
|Comments:|| || To be taken 3 times a day, but I only took as & when necessary.|
Diazepam review by 18 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Highly Effective|
|Side effects:|| || Moderate Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || mood swings, felt BY- POLAR|
|Dosage & duration:|| || 1/3 of 1 pill taken whenever im feeling stressed for the period of only for the last 2 days|
|Other conditions:|| || Non |
|Other drugs taken:|| || Non |
|Benefits:|| || Non moody after taking 1/3 of 1 pill, calm and relaxed. |
|Side effects:|| || Never feeling sexual aroused anymore since taking the pills. Not once since taking the pill. Not wanting partner to try anything sexual, I'm just turned off. Have no idea why but i definitely know it's those pills. |
|Comments:|| || Diazepam : 1/3 of 1 pill
whenever i'm feeling stressed,mood swings, felt BY- POLAR
Non moody after taking 1/3 of 1 pill, calm and relaxed.
Never feeling sexual aroused anymore since taking the pills though. Not once since taking the pill. Not wanting partner to try anything sexual, I'm just turned off. Have no idea why but i definitely know it's those pills.
Diazepam review by 40 year old female patient
|Overall rating:|| || |
|Effectiveness:|| || Ineffective|
|Side effects:|| || Extremely Severe Side Effects|
|Condition / reason:|| || Anxiety|
|Dosage & duration:|| || 10 mg qid taken one day for the period of one day|
|Other conditions:|| || PTSD|
|Other drugs taken:|| || None|
|Benefits:|| || None|
|Side effects:|| || Drug-induced psychosis, resulting in 10 day commitment to a mental institution.|
|Comments:|| || Many people I know - I now work as a health care professional - erroneously believe that Valium, Xanax, Ativan, and other benzodiazepines must be used "as directed" and have enhanced benefit if "built up in the brain"- ie: in ways similar to SSRI's effect on the brain over time. I was entirely aware that diazepam is a "prn" medication, and chose to use the prescribed dosage on one particular day hoping it would carry me through a difficult situation. Unfortunately, I suffered a "paradoxical reaction" which cost me dearly in many tragic ways. I was in a state of severe psychosis for days- because my "benzo" level was low when admitted to the hospital, I was given diazepam for an additional two days, whereupon I apparently refused to take any medication at all, and recovered as I "detoxed". I have absolutely no memory of five days of my life. I have done research into this phenomenon, and must warn all that this seems to occur most often in indiviguals with dopamine/GABA reuptake variants- such as those with ADHD, Parkinsons, and also PTSD. Diazepam is a "bandaid" and offers no long-term therapeutic benefit whatsoever. In fact, "rebound" anxiety and profound depression are common. What is most ironic is that in the medical setting, this occurs often after administration of "Versed", is recognized quickly, and fluzanimine is given as an antidote. Outside of this scenario, the patient is blamed, treated as a suspected drug addict, and stigmatized. |
Page last updated: 2011-12-09