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Dextroamphetamine (Dextroamphetamine Sulfate) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

Dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP is the dextro isomer of the compound d,l -amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d-alpha-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of dextroamphetamine as the neutral sulfate. The structural formula is as follows:

(C9H13N)2 • H2SO4 M.W. 368.49

Each extended-release capsule is so prepared that an initial dose is released promptly and the remaining medication is released gradually over a prolonged period.

Each capsule contains dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP, and has the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, dibutyl sebacate, ethylcellulose aqueous dispersion, methylcellulose, povidone, propylene glycol, sugar spheres and talc.

The capsule shell ingredients in the 5 mg are D&C red no. 33, FD&C blue no. 1, FD&C yellow no. 6, gelatin, and titanium dioxide.

The capsule shell ingredients in the 10 mg are black iron oxide, gelatin, red iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide.

The capsule shell ingredients in the 15 mg are black iron oxide, gelatin, red iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide.

The imprinting ingredients are D&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake, FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake, FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake, pharmaceutical glaze, propylene glycol, and synthetic black iron oxide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Amphetamines are noncatecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Peripheral actions include elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and weak bronchodilator and respiratory stimulant action.

There is neither specific evidence that clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.

Dextroamphetamine sulfate extended-release capsules are formulated to release the active drug substance in vivo in a more gradual fashion than the standard formulation, as demonstrated by blood levels. The formulation has not been shown superior in effectiveness over the same dosage of the standard, noncontrolled-release formulations given in divided doses.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of the tablet and extended-release capsule were compared in 12 healthy subjects. The extent of bioavailability of the extended-release capsule was similar compared to the immediate-release tablet. Following administration of three 5 mg tablets, average maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 36.6 ng/mL were achieved at approximately 3 hours. Following administration of one 15 mg extended-release capsule, maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations were obtained approximately 8 hours after dosing. The average Cmax was 23.5 ng/mL. The average plasma T1/2 was similar for both the tablet and extended-release capsule and was approximately 12 hours.

In 12 healthy subjects, the rate and extent of dextroamphetamine absorption were similar following administration of the extended-release capsule formulation in the fed (58 to 75 gm fat) and fasted state.

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