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Dexedrine (Dextroamphetamine Sulfate) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

DEXEDRINE (dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP) tablets are the dextro isomer of the compound d,l-amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d-alpha-methyl-phenethylamine, and is present in all forms of DEXEDRINE as the neutral sulfate. It has a chemical formula of (C9H13N)2•H2SO4 and a molecular weight of 368.49.

Structural Formula:

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains dextroamphetamine sulfate USP, 5 mg or 10 mg. Each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, and D&C Red # 27 Aluminum Lake.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Amphetamines are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Peripheral actions include elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and weak bronchodilator and respiratory stimulant action.

There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of the tablets and sustained-release capsules were compared in 12 healthy subjects. The extent of bioavailability of the sustained-release capsule was similar compared to the immediate-release tablet. Following administration of three 5 mg tablets, average maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 36.6 ng/mL were achieved at approximately 3 hours. Following administration of one 15 mg sustained-release capsule, maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations were obtained approximately 8 hours after dosing. The average Cmax was 23.5 ng/mL. The average plasma T1/2 was similar for both the tablet and sustained-release capsule and was approximately 12 hours.

In 12 healthy subjects, the rate and extent of dextroamphetamine absorption were similar following administration of the sustained-release capsule formulation in the fed (58 to 75 gm fat) and fasted state.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude.

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