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Demser (Metyrosine) - Summary

 
 



DEMSER SUMMARY

DEMSER (Metyrosine) inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the first transformation in catecholamine biosynthesis, i.e., the conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA).

DEMSER is indicated in the treatment of patients with pheochromocytoma for:

  1. Preoperative preparation of patients for surgery
  2. Management of patients when surgery is contraindicated
  3. Chronic treatment of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma.

DEMSER is not recommended for the control of essential hypertension.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Media Articles Related to Demser (Metyrosine)

Pheochromocytoma
Source: MedicineNet Tremor Specialty [2016.09.06]
Title: Pheochromocytoma
Category: Diseases and Conditions
Created: 12/31/1997 12:00:00 AM
Last Editorial Review: 9/6/2016 12:00:00 AM

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Published Studies Related to Demser (Metyrosine)

Metyrosine in psychosis associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report. [2007.02]
This report describes the use of metyrosine (Demser) in an adolescent male with psychosis associated with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome; VCFS), diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). He presented with multiple features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, including ventricular septal defect, palatal abnormalities, speech and motor delays, attention deficits, mood lability, and psychosis...

Metyrosine and pheochromocytoma. [1997.04.28]
BACKGROUND: Severe hemodynamic instability may occur during surgery for removal of pheochromocytoma, unless there is preoperative pharmacological treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of metyrosine (alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine), a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor, and alpha-blockade with prazosin or phenoxybenzamine on cardiovascular morbidity during surgery for pheochromocytoma... CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alpha-metyrosine and alpha-blockade results in better blood pressure control and less need for use of antihypertensive medication or pressors during surgery, compared with the classical method of single-agent adrenergic blockade. Preoperative treatment with metyrosine along with an alpha-blocker is a useful strategy for decreasing the surgical morbidity in patients with pheochromocytoma and assumes greater importance as long as the availability of phentolamine for intraoperative use is a problem.

Surgical management of pheochromocytoma with the use of metyrosine. [1990.11]
Despite recommended preoperative preparation with alpha-adrenergic blockers, severe hemodynamic instability may occur during operations to resect pheochromocytoma. We combined the alpha-blocker phenoxybenzamine with the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor metyrosine in an attempt to better manage the hypertension of patients with pheochromocytoma undergoing surgical resection.

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Clinical Trials Related to Demser (Metyrosine)

Metyrosine (Demser´┐Ż) for the Treatment of Psychotic Disorders in Patients With Velocardiofacial Syndrome [Terminated]
This is an exploratory clinical investigation. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the safety, steady-state pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of metyrosine (Demser«) for the treatment of psychosis in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS).

Neural Response to Catecholamine Depletion in Subjects Suffering From Bulimia Nervosa in Their Past and Healthy Controls [Suspended]
Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain such as self-induced vomiting. With this project, the investigators want to investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in bulimia nervosa. Dopamine is reported to have an important influence on the neural reward system and is involved in the processing of gains and losses. The reward system is functionally connected to the individual perception of rewards in the environment. A previous study revealed that under catecholamine depletion including dopamine depletion women suffering from bulimia nervosa in their past reported mild bulimic symptoms and their reward processing became dysfunctional: their ability to use rewarding stimuli for task solving was diminished. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of reduced dopamine availability in the development or maintaining of bulimia nervosa and in the dysfunctional processing of rewarding stimuli and negative visual information. Therefore, the investigators hypothesize that catecholamine depletion achieved by oral administration of alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) will induce mild bulimic symptoms in females suffering from bulimia nervosa in their past. In addition, they will reveal dysfunctions in reward and emotional processing under catecholamine depletion. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the investigators propose that a reduced activation of the nucleus accumbens, a neural structure of the reward system, will be the neural correlate of this dysfunctional reward processing. Furthermore, the amygdala, a neural structure that is involved in emotional processing, will show a higher activation under catecholamine depletion. Genetic factors additionally have an influence on the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the investigators hypothesize that genetic factors, for example the COMT val-158-met polymorphism may have an effect on the behavioral and neural response to catecholamine depletion. In sum, this investigation may help to understand which changes in reward and emotional processing may lead to a reoccurrence of bulimic symptoms. In future, the findings of this study may help to develop individual pharmacological and psychotherapeutical interventions to enhance the outcome of treatment.

Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension [Enrolling by invitation]
The purpose of this study is to try different medications in patients with low blood pressure and other problems with their involuntary (autonomic) nervous system. The pharmacological trials in this study will perhaps lead to more effective treatment. This study consists of single dose trials, dose selection trials, 5-day trials and chronic (approximately 2 months) trials.

PET Imaging of Dopamine in Healthy Study Participants [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to measure molecules on or in cells that interact with a chemical in the nervous system, called dopamine. Investigators will obtain two kinds of images of the brain-a position emission tomography (PET) scan and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Thirty-eight participants aged 18 to 45 will be enrolled in this study. They must have no history of medical or psychiatric illness, including substance abuse. Participants will have four appointments at NIH. On the first visit, they will undergo a physical exam, a medical history, and lab tests. The second and third visits will involve PET scans and the fourth visit will involve an MRI scan. Participants will be compensated up to $430 for their involvement in this study.

131MIBG to Treat Malignant Pheochromocytoma [Completed]
This study will evaluate the effectiveness of 131MIBG in treating malignant pheochromocytoma and whether sensitization medications improve the response to treatment. Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that usually occurs in the adrenal glands. The tumor cells release chemicals like adrenaline that can cause large increases in blood pressure and pulse rate, with serious health consequences. Tumor in the adrenal glands usually can be removed surgically, but if the pheochromocytoma is malignant-i. e., has spread to many sites in the body-or is located in places where surgery is difficult or impossible, no satisfactory treatment is available. 131MIBG is a combination of an adrenaline-like chemical and a radioactive form of iodine. The 131MIBG attaches to the tumor cells and the high concentration of radioactive iodine kills them. Previous studies using 131MIBG to treat pheochromocytoma had a 36% response rate in terms of complete or partial improvement. This study will examine whether adding other sensitization medications to the 131MIBG treatment regimen will enhance its effectiveness in reducing the size and number of tumors. Patients 18 years of age and older with malignant or inoperable pheochromocytoma may be eligible for this 18-month study. Candidates will be screened with various tests and procedures, which may include a medical history, physical examination, blood and urine tests, lung function studies, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and bone scans and other scans using radioactive MIBG and octreotide. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: 1) 131MIBG plus sensitization medications, or 2) 131MIBG alone. All patients will be hospitalized 3 to 5 days for each 131MIBG treatment. The drug will be infused through a vein (intravenously, or I. V.) over 10 to 30 minutes. Patients will receive up to 3 treatments, separated by at least 3 months. All patients will also take potassium to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine generated by the 131MIBG. The potassium is taken twice a day for 30 days, beginning the day before the 131MIBG treatment. Patients in the sensitization group will receive the following additional drugs for sensitization: methylprednisolone, intravenously a few minutes before 131MIBG treatment; Roaccutan, by mouth (capsules) twice a day for 6 weeks before treatment; Demser, by mouth 3 times a week for 1 week before treatment, and Carbidopa, by mouth every 6 hours for 4 days before treatment. After each treatment, patients will have a clinical evaluation and periodic blood tests to check for adverse side effects of radiotherapy. Follow-up visits at NIH will be scheduled at 12 and 18 months after the first 131MIBG treatment for clinical, laboratory and imaging tests. Patients who had tumors in the lungs before treatment will have lung function tests 1, 3, and 6 months after each treatment. CT, MRI 131MIBG, and PET scanning will be done 1 week before each treatment. Patients who have tumors that have grown by more than 25% and none that have shrunk by more than 50% or who have developed one or more new tumors while on 131MIBG treatment will be taken off the study.

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Page last updated: 2016-09-06

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