Ganciclovir is a synthetic guanine derivative active against cytomegalovirus (CMV). CYTOVENE-IV and CYTOVENE are the brand names for ganciclovir sodium for injection and ganciclovir capsules, respectively.
CYTOVENE-IV is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CYTOVENE-IV is also indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease (see CLINICAL TRIALS).
CYTOVENE capsules are indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients and in individuals with advanced HIV infection at risk for developing CMV disease. CYTOVENE capsules are also indicated as an alternative to the intravenous formulation for maintenance treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with AIDS, in whom retinitis is stable following appropriate induction therapy and for whom the risk of more rapid progression is balanced by the benefit associated with avoiding daily IV infusions (see CLINICAL TRIALS).
SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF CYTOVENE-IV AND CYTOVENE HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR CONGENITAL OR NEONATAL CMV DISEASE; NOR FOR THE TREATMENT OF ESTABLISHED CMV DISEASE OTHER THAN RETINITIS; NOR FOR USE IN NON-IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUALS. THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF CYTOVENE CAPSULES HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR TREATING ANY MANIFESTATION OF CMV DISEASE OTHER THAN MAINTENANCE TREATMENT OF CMV RETINITIS.
Published Studies Related to Cytovene (Ganciclovir)
Valganciclovir reduces T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T cell recovery on antiretroviral therapy. [2011.05.15]
BACKGROUND: Elevated immune activation persists during treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is associated with blunted CD4 recovery and premature mortality, but its causes remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication might contribute to immune activation in this setting... CONCLUSIONS: CMV (and/or other herpesvirus) replication is a significant cause of immune activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete antiretroviral therapy-mediated CD4(+) T cell recovery. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00264290.
Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D+/R- kidney transplant recipients is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: two-year results of the IMPACT study. [2010.12.27]
BACKGROUND: Whether the early reduction in cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease seen at 1 year with prolongation of antiviral prophylaxis (up to 200 days) persists in the long term is unknown... CONCLUSION: Extending valganciclovir prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days is associated with a sustained reduction in CMV disease up to 2 years posttransplant.
Ganciclovir pharmacokinetic parameters do not change when extending valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days. [2010.12.27]
BACKGROUND: A 3-month course of prophylaxis is usually recommended for cytomegalovirus (CMV) D+/R- renal transplant recipients. Based on recent data, up to 6 months of prophylaxis may be used. A subanalysis was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir after valganciclovir administration and to perform an exploratory pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis... CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir were similar between the two dosing groups (100 vs. 200 days), with the majority of patients achieving an area under the concentration time curve in the target therapeutic range (40-60 mug hr/mL). The fact that the majority of patients were within the target therapeutic range and the absence of a control arm (no treatment) precluded any attempt to validate a correlation with clinical parameters (i.e., CMV disease).
[Clinical efficacy of treating infant cytomegalovirus hepatitis with ganciclovir and impact on cytokines]. [2010.11]
AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of treating infant cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis with ganciclovir and impact on cytokines... CONCLUSIONS: The induction and maintenance treatment of ganciclovir in treatment of infant CMV hepatitis can make the body to restore balance of specific cellular immunity, and can significantly improve the symptoms of jaundice, liver function and clinical efficay and it is worthy to be popularized.
Impact of prophylactic versus preemptive valganciclovir on long-term renal allograft outcomes. [2010.08.27]
BACKGROUND: Both prophylactic and preemptive oral valganciclovir therapy are effective for the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) postrenal transplantation in the short term. The long-term effect of either strategy is less well defined... CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of sample size, our data suggest that either strategy for the management of CMV immediately after transplantation seems effective for patient and graft survival in the long term. CMV management is one of the many therapeutic strategies incorporated into a renal transplantation protocol, which often differs among institutions, and the decision as to which approach to use remains center- and resource-specific. The increased incidence of death in the prophylactic group requires further investigation.
Clinical Trials Related to Cytovene (Ganciclovir)
Topical Administration of 0.15% Ganciclovir Gel for CMV Anterior Uveitis / Endotheliitis [Recruiting]
Objective of this study is to investigate the intracameral level of ganciclovir following
topical application of 0. 15% ganciclovir gel (VIRGANŠ) for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior
uveitis and endothelitis. Thirty patients who are diagnosed with CMV anterior segment
infection, either uveitis or endothelitis, who have a positive aqueous real time PCR
(RT-PCR) and/or positive tetraplex PCR for CMV and have not had any form of ganciclovir
treatment in the past 1 month, will be recruited in the study after taking an informed
consent. with active CMV anterior segment infection confirmed by a positive aqueous real
time PCR (RT-PCR) and have not had any form of ganciclovir treatment in the past 1 month
were recruited in the study. Patients were given 0. 15% ganciclovir gel 1cc 5 times a day for
6 weeks. Following 6 weeks of treatment, tears and aqueous samples will be collected.
Aqueous will be sent for RT-PCR for CMV status. Ganciclovir drug level in both tears and
aqueous will be measured by HPLC method. Clinically, degree of the intraocular inflammation,
Intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) will be recorded at baseline
Individualization of Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir Doses Using Bayesian Prediction in Renal Transplant Patients. [Completed]
The objective of the present study is to optimize intravenous ganciclovir(GCV) and oral
valganciclovir (VGCV)doses, advised by the drug exposure, indicated by the area under the
concentration time curve (AUC), in renal transplant patients receiving oral VGCV or
intravenous GCV for CMV prophylaxis or treatment. The initial doses will be calculated
according to population pharmacokinetic model. Subsequent doses will be adjusted according
to plasma GCV concentrations, using the Bayesian approach. This method of dose adjustments
could lead to increase the percentage of patients achieving a therapeutic exposure.
Study of Ganciclovir/Valganciclovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Acute Injury of the Lung and Respiratory Failure [Recruiting]
To evaluate whether administration of ganciclovir reduces serum IL-6 levels (i. e. reduction
between baseline and 14 days post-randomization) in immunocompetent adults with severe
sepsis or trauma associated respiratory failure.
- In CMV seropositive adults with severe sepsis or trauma , pulmonary and systemic CMV
reactivation amplifies and perpetuates both lung and systemic inflammation mediated through
specific cytokines, and contributes to pulmonary injury and multiorgan system failure,
- Prevention of CMV reactivation with ganciclovir decreases pulmonary and systemic
inflammatory cytokines that are important in the pathogenesis of sepsis and trauma related
A Placebo Controlled Comparison of Topical Zirgan Versus Genteal Gel for the Treatment of Adenovirus Conjunctivitis [Recruiting]
The investigators are conducting this study because the patient have an eye infection which
is called adenoviral conjunctivitis, and is the most common cause of "pink eye". There is
currently no treatment for this condition. However, the researchers associated with this
study want to understand if using a product called Zirgan, which is a topical ointment that
is already FDA-approved for other types of eye infections, will help with the type of
infection that the patient currently have. Zirgan is not FDA-approved to treat your type of
eye infection. Your participation in this study is expected to last 21 days but the patient
will only apply the topical ointment for 14 of those days. During the study, the patient
will be asked to come into this clinic 8 times.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether topical Zirgan can reduce days that the
patient suffers from the eye infection, and also to see if it can prevent the infection from
spreading to your second eye and to also see if it can prevent the spreading of the
infection to people that the patient come in close contact with.
Zirgan will be compared to Genteal Gel in this trial. Genteal Gel is a non-prescription eye
lubricant gel and is commonly used for treatment of dry eye.
The patient will be asked to apply a topical ointment (either Zirgan or Genteal gel 5 times
a day for the first 7 days and then 3 times a day for the following 7 days. The patient
will be asked to return to the clinic 21 days after the patient starts the study for a final
It is planned that about 80 people with Adenovirus Conjunctivitis will be enrolled in this
study between 8-12 sites across the United States.
The patient will be assigned to either Zirgan or Genteal gel by chance which is similar to
flipping a coin.
The study groups will be assigned in a 1: 1 ratio. Neither the patient nor the study doctor
or study staff will be able to pick which study group The patient is in. The patient will
not know and the study doctor or study staff will not know which study group the patient is
in. The study doctor or study staff can find out if it is necessary to know for your
health. If this happens, the study doctor or study staff may not be able to tell the
patient which study group the patient was in until everyone finishes the study.
Evaluate the Use of Ganciclovir Gel 0.3% for the Treatment of Conjunctivitis Caused by Adenovirus [Not yet recruiting]