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Cytovene-IV (Ganciclovir Sodium) - Summary

 
 



WARNING

THE CLINICAL TOXICITY OF CYTOVENE-IV INCLUDES GRANULOCYTOPENIA, ANEMIA AND THROMBOCYTOPENIA. IN ANIMAL STUDIES GANCICLOVIR WAS CARCINOGENIC, TERATOGENIC AND CAUSED ASPERMATOGENESIS.

CYTOVENE-IV IS INDICATED FOR USE ONLY IN THE TREATMENT OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) RETINITIS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS AND FOR THE PREVENTION OF CMV DISEASE IN TRANSPLANT PATIENTS AT RISK FOR CMV DISEASE (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

 

CYTOVENE-IV SUMMARY

CYTOVENE®-IV
(ganciclovir sodium for injection)
FOR INTRAVENOUS INFUSION ONLY

Ganciclovir is a synthetic guanine derivative active against cytomegalovirus (CMV). CYTOVENE-IV is the brand name for ganciclovir sodium for injection. CYTOVENE-IV is available as sterile lyophilized powder in strength of 500 mg per vial for intravenous administration only. Each vial of CYTOVENE-IV contains the equivalent of 500 mg ganciclovir as the sodium salt (46 mg sodium). Reconstitution with 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, USP, yields a solution with pH 11 and a ganciclovir concentration of approximately 50 mg/mL. Further dilution in an appropriate intravenous solution must be performed before infusion (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

CYTOVENE-IV is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CYTOVENE-IV is also indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF CYTOVENE-IV HAS NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR CONGENITAL OR NEONATAL CMV DISEASE; NOR FOR THE TREATMENT OF ESTABLISHED CMV DISEASE OTHER THAN RETINITIS; NOR FOR USE IN NON-IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUALS.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Cytovene-IV (Ganciclovir)

Valganciclovir reduces T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T cell recovery on antiretroviral therapy. [2011.05.15]
BACKGROUND: Elevated immune activation persists during treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is associated with blunted CD4 recovery and premature mortality, but its causes remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication might contribute to immune activation in this setting... CONCLUSIONS: CMV (and/or other herpesvirus) replication is a significant cause of immune activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete antiretroviral therapy-mediated CD4(+) T cell recovery. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00264290.

Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D+/R- kidney transplant recipients is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: two-year results of the IMPACT study. [2010.12.27]
BACKGROUND: Whether the early reduction in cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease seen at 1 year with prolongation of antiviral prophylaxis (up to 200 days) persists in the long term is unknown... CONCLUSION: Extending valganciclovir prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days is associated with a sustained reduction in CMV disease up to 2 years posttransplant.

Ganciclovir pharmacokinetic parameters do not change when extending valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days. [2010.12.27]
BACKGROUND: A 3-month course of prophylaxis is usually recommended for cytomegalovirus (CMV) D+/R- renal transplant recipients. Based on recent data, up to 6 months of prophylaxis may be used. A subanalysis was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir after valganciclovir administration and to perform an exploratory pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis... CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir were similar between the two dosing groups (100 vs. 200 days), with the majority of patients achieving an area under the concentration time curve in the target therapeutic range (40-60 mug hr/mL). The fact that the majority of patients were within the target therapeutic range and the absence of a control arm (no treatment) precluded any attempt to validate a correlation with clinical parameters (i.e., CMV disease).

[Clinical efficacy of treating infant cytomegalovirus hepatitis with ganciclovir and impact on cytokines]. [2010.11]
AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of treating infant cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis with ganciclovir and impact on cytokines... CONCLUSIONS: The induction and maintenance treatment of ganciclovir in treatment of infant CMV hepatitis can make the body to restore balance of specific cellular immunity, and can significantly improve the symptoms of jaundice, liver function and clinical efficay and it is worthy to be popularized.

Impact of prophylactic versus preemptive valganciclovir on long-term renal allograft outcomes. [2010.08.27]
BACKGROUND: Both prophylactic and preemptive oral valganciclovir therapy are effective for the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) postrenal transplantation in the short term. The long-term effect of either strategy is less well defined... CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of sample size, our data suggest that either strategy for the management of CMV immediately after transplantation seems effective for patient and graft survival in the long term. CMV management is one of the many therapeutic strategies incorporated into a renal transplantation protocol, which often differs among institutions, and the decision as to which approach to use remains center- and resource-specific. The increased incidence of death in the prophylactic group requires further investigation.

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Clinical Trials Related to Cytovene-IV (Ganciclovir)

Topical Administration of 0.15% Ganciclovir Gel for CMV Anterior Uveitis / Endotheliitis [Recruiting]
Objective of this study is to investigate the intracameral level of ganciclovir following topical application of 0. 15% ganciclovir gel (VIRGANŠ) for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis and endothelitis. Thirty patients who are diagnosed with CMV anterior segment infection, either uveitis or endothelitis, who have a positive aqueous real time PCR (RT-PCR) and/or positive tetraplex PCR for CMV and have not had any form of ganciclovir treatment in the past 1 month, will be recruited in the study after taking an informed consent. with active CMV anterior segment infection confirmed by a positive aqueous real time PCR (RT-PCR) and have not had any form of ganciclovir treatment in the past 1 month were recruited in the study. Patients were given 0. 15% ganciclovir gel 1cc 5 times a day for 6 weeks. Following 6 weeks of treatment, tears and aqueous samples will be collected. Aqueous will be sent for RT-PCR for CMV status. Ganciclovir drug level in both tears and aqueous will be measured by HPLC method. Clinically, degree of the intraocular inflammation, Intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) will be recorded at baseline and post-treatment.

A Randomized Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Two Regimens of Oral Ganciclovir to Intravenous Ganciclovir Maintenance Therapy for Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in People With AIDS Who Have Received Prior Ganciclovir Therapy [Completed]
To compare the safety and tolerance of oral ganciclovir at a double dose 3 times/day or a single dose 6 times/day to IV ganciclovir given for 20 weeks of maintenance therapy. To compare the time to progression of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis between two regimens of oral ganciclovir and IV ganciclovir therapy given for 20 weeks of maintenance therapy. To describe the efficacy and safety of double dose versus single dose oral ganciclovir in patients who have a progression of retinitis while on the originally assigned maintenance treatment. To describe the safety, tolerance, and time to progression of retinitis during the 52 weeks of oral ganciclovir maintenance therapy in people with AIDS. To describe the safety and tolerance of oral ganciclovir maintenance therapy when given concurrently with antiretroviral treatment (e. g., zidovudine, ddI, or ddC). To describe survival of people with AIDS and CMV retinitis.

A Placebo Controlled Comparison of Topical Zirgan Versus Genteal Gel for the Treatment of Adenovirus Conjunctivitis [Recruiting]
The investigators are conducting this study because the patient have an eye infection which is called adenoviral conjunctivitis, and is the most common cause of "pink eye". There is currently no treatment for this condition. However, the researchers associated with this study want to understand if using a product called Zirgan, which is a topical ointment that is already FDA-approved for other types of eye infections, will help with the type of infection that the patient currently have. Zirgan is not FDA-approved to treat your type of eye infection. Your participation in this study is expected to last 21 days but the patient will only apply the topical ointment for 14 of those days. During the study, the patient will be asked to come into this clinic 8 times.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether topical Zirgan can reduce days that the patient suffers from the eye infection, and also to see if it can prevent the infection from spreading to your second eye and to also see if it can prevent the spreading of the infection to people that the patient come in close contact with.

Zirgan will be compared to Genteal Gel in this trial. Genteal Gel is a non-prescription eye lubricant gel and is commonly used for treatment of dry eye.

The patient will be asked to apply a topical ointment (either Zirgan or Genteal gel 5 times a day for the first 7 days and then 3 times a day for the following 7 days. The patient will be asked to return to the clinic 21 days after the patient starts the study for a final check-up.

It is planned that about 80 people with Adenovirus Conjunctivitis will be enrolled in this study between 8-12 sites across the United States.

The patient will be assigned to either Zirgan or Genteal gel by chance which is similar to flipping a coin.

The study groups will be assigned in a 1: 1 ratio. Neither the patient nor the study doctor or study staff will be able to pick which study group The patient is in. The patient will not know and the study doctor or study staff will not know which study group the patient is in. The study doctor or study staff can find out if it is necessary to know for your health. If this happens, the study doctor or study staff may not be able to tell the patient which study group the patient was in until everyone finishes the study.

Individualization of Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir Doses Using Bayesian Prediction in Renal Transplant Patients. [Recruiting]
The objective of the present study is to optimize intravenous ganciclovir(GCV) and oral valganciclovir (VGCV)doses, advised by the drug exposure, indicated by the area under the concentration time curve (AUC), in renal transplant patients receiving oral VGCV or intravenous GCV for CMV prophylaxis or treatment. The initial doses will be calculated according to population pharmacokinetic model. Subsequent doses will be adjusted according to plasma GCV concentrations, using the Bayesian approach. This method of dose adjustments could lead to increase the percentage of patients achieving a therapeutic exposure.

A Randomized Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Oral Ganciclovir After Treatment With Intravenous Ganciclovir for Cytomegalovirus Gastrointestinal Disease in AIDS Patients [Completed]
To determine the oral bioavailability of three dose levels of oral ganciclovir given with and without glutamic acid hydrochloride in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) GI disease, and to compare the bioavailability of these regimens to that of standard intravenous (IV) ganciclovir.

Long-term ganciclovir maintenance therapy has been recommended for CMV colitis or esophagitis following induction treatment. Oral ganciclovir is a likely candidate for maintenance because of its possible therapeutic value and ease of administration, but an optimum dose has not been determined. Since oral ganciclovir has a low bioavailability and is more soluble in an acid pH environment, the addition of glutamic acid hydrochloride may enhance gastrointestinal absorption of this drug.

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Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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