The effects of overdosage are expected to be related primarily to albuterol sulfate. Acute overdosage with ipratropium bromide by inhalation is unlikely since ipratropium bromide is not well absorbed systemically after aerosol or oral administration. Oral median lethal doses of ipratropium bromide were greater than 1001 mg/kg in mice (approximately 19,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis); 1663 mg/kg in rats (approximately 62,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis); and 400 mg/kg in dogs (approximately 50,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults, on a mg/m2 basis). Whereas the oral median lethal dose of albuterol sulfate in mice and rats was greater than 2000 mg/kg (approximately 6600 and 13,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose, respectively, in adults on a mg/m2 basis), the inhalational median lethal dose could not be determined. Manifestations of overdosage with albuterol may include anginal pain, hypertension, hypokalemia, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats per minute, metabolic acidosis, and exaggeration of the pharmacologic effects listed in
. As with all sympathomimetic aerosol medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with abuse. Dialysis is not appropriate treatment for overdosage of albuterol as an inhalation aerosol; the judicious use of a cardiovascular beta-receptor blocker, such as metoprolol tartrate may be indicated.