INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS
ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS TREATED WITH ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS ARE AT AN INCREASED RISK OF DEATH COMPARED TO PLACEBO. CLOZAPINE IS NOT APPROVED FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS (SEE BOXED WARNING).
BECAUSE OF THE SIGNIFICANT RISK OF AGRANULOCYTOSIS A POTENTIALLY LIFE-THREATENING ADVERSE EVENT (SEE FOLLOWING), CLOZAPINE SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR USE IN THE FOLLOWING INDICATIONS: 1) FOR TREATMENT OF SEVERELY ILL SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS WHO FAIL TO SHOW AN ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE TO ADEQUATE COURSES OF STANDARD DRUG TREATMENT FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA, EITHER BECAUSE OF INSUFFICIENT EFFECTIVENESS OR THE INABILITY TO ACHIEVE AN EFFECTIVE DOSE DUE TO INTOLERABLE ADVERSE EFFECTS FROM THOSE DRUGS. CONSEQUENTLY, BEFORE INITIATING TREATMENT, WITH CLOZAPINE; IT IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED THAT A PATIENT BE GIVEN AT LEAST TWO TRIALS, EACH WITH A DIFFERENT STANDARD DRUG PRODUCT FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA, AT AN ADEQUATE DOSE, AND FOR AN ADEQUATE DURATION. 2) FOR REDUCING THE RISK FOR RECURRENT SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA OR SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER WHO ARE JUDGED TO BE AT RISK OF REEXPERIENCING SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR.
CLOZAPINE IS AVAILABLE ONLY THROUGH A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM THAT ENSURES MONITORING OF WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT AND ABSOLUTE NEUTROPHIL COUNT (ANC) ACCORDING TO THE SCHEDULE DESCRIBED BELOW PRIOR TO DELIVERY OF THE NEXT SUPPLY OF MEDICATION.
AS DESCRIBED IN TABLE 1, PATIENTS WHO ARE BEING TREATED WITH CLOZAPINE MUST HAVE A BASELINE WBC COUNT AND ANC BEFORE INITIATION OF TREATMENT, AND A WBC COUNT AND ANC EVERY WEEK FOR THE FIRST 6 MONTHS. THEREAFTER, IF ACCEPTABLE WBC COUNTS AND ANC (WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 and ANC ≥ 2000/mm3) HAVE BEEN MAINTAINED DURING THE FIRST 6 MONTHS OF CONTINUOUS THERAPY, WBC COUNTS AND ANC CAN BE MONITORED EVERY 2 WEEKS FOR THE NEXT 6 MONTHS. THEREAFTER, IF ACCEPTABLE WBC COUNTS AND ANC (WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 and ANC ≥ 2000/mm3) HAVE BEEN MAINTAINED DURING THE SECOND 6 MONTHS OF CONTINUOUS THERAPY, WBC COUNT AND ANC CAN BE MONITORED EVERY 4 WEEKS.
WHEN TREATMENT WITH CLOZAPINE IS DISCONTINUED (REGARDLESS OF THE REASON), WBC COUNT AND ANC MUST BE MONITORED WEEKLY FOR AT LEAST 4 WEEKS FROM THE DAY OF DISCONTINUATION OR UNTIL WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 AND ANC ≥ 2000/mm3.
Agranulocytosis, defined as an ANC of less than 500/mm3, has been estimated to occur in association with clozapine use at a cumulative incidence at one year of approximately 1.3%, based on the occurrence of 15 U.S. cases out of 1,743 patients exposed to clozapine during its clinical testing prior to domestic marketing. All of these cases occurred at a time when the need for close monitoring of WBC counts was already recognized. Agranulocytosis could prove fatal if not detected early and therapy interrupted. Of the 149 cases of agranulocytosis reported worldwide in association with clozapine use as of December 31, 1989, 32% were fatal. However, few of these deaths occurred since 1977, at which time the knowledge of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis became more widespread, and close monitoring of WBC counts more widely practiced. In the U.S., under a weekly WBC count monitoring system with clozapine, there have been 585 cases of agranulocytosis as of August 21, 1997; 19 were fatal (3%). During this period 150,409 patients received clozapine. A hematologic risk analysis was conducted based upon the available information in the Clozapine National Registry (CNR) for U.S. patients. Based upon a cut-off date of April 30, 1995, the incidence rates of agranulocytosis based upon a weekly monitoring schedule, rose steeply during the first 2 months of therapy, peaking in the third month. Among clozapine patients who continued the drug beyond the third month, the weekly incidence of agranulocytosis fell to a substantial degree. After 6 months, the weekly incidence of agranulocytosis declines still further, however, it never reaches zero. It should be noted that any type of reduction in the frequency of monitoring WBC counts may result in an increased incidence of agranulocytosis.
Experience from clinical development, as well as from examples in the medical literature, suggest that patients who have developed agranulocytosis during clozapine therapy are at increased risk of subsequent episodes of agranulocytosis. Analysis of WBC count data from the Clozapine National Registry also suggests that patients who have an initial episode of moderate leukopenia (3000/mm3 > WBC ≥ 2000/mm3) are at an increased risk of subsequent episodes of agranulocytosis. Except for bone marrow suppression during initial clozapine therapy, there are no other established risk factors, based on worldwide experience, for the development of agranulocytosis in association with clozapine use. However, a disproportionate number of the U.S. cases of agranulocytosis occurred in patients of Jewish background compared to the overall proportion of such patients exposed during domestic development of clozapine. Most of the U.S. cases of agranulocytosis occurred within 4 to 10 weeks of exposure but neither dose nor duration is a reliable predictor of this problem. Agranulocytosis associated with other antipsychotic drugs has been reported to occur with a greater frequency in women, the elderly and in patients who are cachectic or have a serious underlying medical illness; such patients may also be at particular risk with clozapine, although this has not been definitely demonstrated.
WBC Count and ANC Monitoring Schedule
Table 1 provides a summary of the frequency of monitoring that should occur based on various stages of therapy (e.g., initiation of therapy) or results from WBC count and ANC monitoring tests (e.g., moderate leukopenia). The text that follows should be consulted for additional details regarding the treatment of patients under the various conditions (e.g., severe leukopenia).
Patients should be advised to report immediately the appearance of lethargy, weakness, fever, sore throat or any other signs of infection occurring at any time during clozapine therapy. Such patients should have a WBC count and ANC performed promptly.
Table 1. Frequency of Monitoring Based on Stage of Therapy or Results from WBC Count and ANC Monitoring Tests
| Situation || Hematological Values for|
| Frequency of WBC and ANC|
|Initiation of therapy||WBC ≥3500/mm3|
Note: Do not initiate in patients
with 1) history of
myeloproliferative disorder or 2)
|Weekly for 6 months|
|6 months to 12 months|
|All results for|
WBC ≥3500/mm3 and
|Every 2 weeks for 6 months|
|12 months of therapy||All results for|
WBC ≥3500/mm3 and
|Every 4 weeks ad infinitum|
|N/A||Repeat WBC and ANC|
|N/A||Weekly for at least 4 weeks from |
day of discontinuation or until
WBC ≥3500/mm3 and ANC >
|Substantial drop in|
WBC or ANC
|Single drop or cumulative drop|
within 3 weeks of
WBC ≥3000/mm3 or
|1. Repeat WBC and ANC|
2. If repeat values are 3000/mm3 ≤
WBC ≤3500/mm3 and ANC <
2000/mm3, then monitor twice
|3500/mm3 > WBC ≥ 3000/mm3and/or |
2000/mm3 > ANC ≥ 1500/mm3
|Twice-weekly until WBC >|
3500/mm3 and ANC > 2000/mm3 then return to previous monitoring
|3000/mm3 > WBC ≥2000/mm3and/or|
1500/mm3 > ANC ≥1000/mm3
|1. Interrupt therapy|
2. Daily until WBC > 3000/mm3
and ANC > 1500/mm33. Twice-weekly until WBC >
3500/mm3 and ANC >
2000/mm34. May rechallenge when WBC >
3500/mm3 and ANC >2000/mm35. If rechallenged, monitor weekly
for one year before returning to
the usual monitoring schedule of
every 2 weeks for 6 months and
then every 4 weeks ad infinitum
|WBC < 2000/mm3|
ANC < 1000/mm3
|1. Discontinue treatment and do |
not rechallenge patient
2. Monitor until normal and for at
least 4 weeks from day of
discontinuation as follows:
- Daily until WBC > 3000/mm3
and ANC > 1500/mm3
- Twice weekly until WBC >
3500/mm3 and ANC >
- Weekly after WBC > 3500/mm3
|Agranulocytosis||ANC ≤ 500/mm3||1. Discontinue treatment and do |
not rechallenge patient
2. Monitor until normal and for at
least 4 weeks from day of
discontinuation as follows:
- Daily until WBC > 3000/mm3
and ANC > 1500/mm3
- Twice weekly until WBC >
3500/mm3 and ANC >
- Weekly after WBC > 3500/mm3
|* WBC = white blood cell count; ANC = absolute neutrophil count|
Decrements in WBC count and/or ANC
Consult Table 1 above to determine how to monitor patients who experience decrements in WBC count and ANC at any point during treatment. Additionally, patients should be carefully monitored for flu-like symptoms or other symptoms suggestive of infection.
If the total WBC count falls below 2000/mm3 or the ANC falls below 1000/mm3, bone marrow aspiration should be considered to ascertain granulopoietic status and patients should not be rechallenged with clozapine. Protective isolation with close observation may be indicated if granulopoiesis is determined to be deficient. Should evidence of infection develop, the patient should have appropriate cultures performed and an appropriate antibiotic regimen instituted.
Patients discontinued from clozapine therapy due to significant granulopoietic suppression have been found to develop agranulocytosis upon rechallenge, often with a shorter latency on reexposure. To reduce the chances of rechallenge occurring in patients who have experienced significant bone marrow suppression during clozapine therapy, a single, national master file (i.e., Non-rechallengeable Database) is maintained confidentially.
Treatment of Rechallengeable Patients
Patients may be rechallenged with clozapine if their WBC count does not fall below 2000/mm3 and the ANC does not fall below 1000/mm3. However, analysis of data from the Clozapine National Registry suggests that patients who have an initial episode of moderate leukopenia (3000/mm3 > WBC ≥ 2000/mm3) have up to a 12-fold increased risk of having a subsequent episode of agranulocytosis when rechallenged compared to the full cohort of patients treated with clozapine. Although clozapine therapy may be resumed if no symptoms of infection develop, and when the WBC count rises above 3500/mm3 and the ANC rises above 2000/mm3, prescribers are strongly advised to consider whether the benefit of continuing clozapine treatment outweighs the increased risk of agranulocytosis.
Analyses of the Clozapine National Registry have shown an increased risk of having a subsequent episode of granulopoietic suppression up to a year after recovery from the initial episode. Therefore, as noted in Table 1 above, patients must undergo weekly WBC count and ANC monitoring for one year following recovery from an episode of moderate leukopenia and/or moderate granulocytopenia regardless of when the episode develops. If acceptable WBC counts and ANC (WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 and ANC ≥ 2000/mm3) have been maintained during the year of weekly monitoring, WBC counts can be monitored every 2 weeks for the next 6 months. If acceptable WBC counts and ANC (WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 and ANC ≥ 2000/mm3) continue to be maintained during the 6 months of every 2 week monitoring, WBC counts can be monitored every 4 weeks thereafter, ad infinitum.
Interruptions in Therapy
Figure 2 provides instructions regarding reinitiating therapy and subsequently the frequency of WBC count and ANC monitoring after a period of interruption.
Figure 2. Resuming Monitoring Frequency after Interruption in Therapy.
*Transitions to reduce frequency of monitoring only permitted if all WBC ≥ 3500 and ANC ≥ 2000.
In clinical trials, 1% of patients developed eosinophilia, which, in rare cases, can be substantial. If a differential count reveals a total eosinophil count above 4000/mm3, clozapine therapy should be interrupted until the eosinophil count falls below 3000/mm3.
Seizure has been estimated to occur in association with clozapine use at a cumulative incidence at one year of approximately 5%, based on the occurrence of one or more seizures in 61 of 1,743 patients exposed to clozapine during its clinical testing prior to domestic marketing (i.e., a crude rate of 3.5%). Dose appears to be an important predictor of seizure, with a greater likelihood of seizure at the higher clozapine doses used.
Caution should be used in administering clozapine to patients having a history of seizures or other predisposing factors. Because of the substantial risk of seizure associated with clozapine use, patients should be advised not to engage in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious risk to themselves or others, e.g., the operation of complex machinery, driving an automobile, swimming, climbing, etc.
Post-marketing surveillance data from four countries that employ hematological monitoring of clozapine-treated patients revealed: 30 reports of myocarditis with 17 fatalities in 205,493 U.S. patients (August 2001); seven reports of myocarditis with one fatality in 15,600 Canadian patients (April 2001); 30 reports of myocarditis with eight fatalities in 24,108 U.K. patients (August 2001); 15 reports of myocarditis with five fatalities in 8,000 Australian patients (March 1999). These reports represent an incidence of 5, 16.3, 43.2, and 96.6 cases/100,000 patient years, respectively. The number of fatalities represent an incidence of 2.8, 2.3, 11.5, and 32.2 cases/100,000 patient years, respectively.
The overall incidence rate of myocarditis in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic agents is unknown. However, for the established market economies (WHO), the incidence of myocarditis is 0.3 cases/100,000 patient years and the fatality rate is 0.2 cases/100,000 patient years. Therefore, the rate of myocarditis in clozapine-treated patients appears to be 17 to 322 times greater than the general population and is associated with an increased risk of fatal myocarditis that is 14 to 161 times greater than the general population.
The total reports of myocarditis for these four countries was 82 of which 51 (62%) occurred within the first month of clozapine treatment, 25 (31%) occurred after the first month of therapy and six (7%) were unknown. The median duration of treatment was 3 weeks. Of 5 patients rechallenged with clozapine, three had a recurrence of myocarditis. Of the 82 reports, 31 (38%) were fatal and 25 patients who died had evidence of myocarditis at autopsy. These data also suggest that the incidence of fatal myocarditis may be highest during the first month of therapy.
Therefore, the possibility of myocarditis should be considered in patients receiving clozapine who present with unexplained fatigue, dyspnea, tachypnea, fever, chest pain, palpitations, other signs or symptoms of heart failure, or electrocardiographic findings such as ST-T wave abnormalities or arrhythmias. It is not known whether eosinophilia is a reliable predictor of myocarditis. Tachycardia, which has been associated with clozapine treatment, has also been noted as a presenting sign in patients with myocarditis. Therefore, tachycardia during the first month of therapy warrants close monitoring for other signs of myocarditis.
Prompt discontinuation of clozapine treatment is warranted upon suspicion of myocarditis. Patients with clozapine-related myocarditis should not be rechallenged with clozapine.
Other Adverse Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects
Orthostatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with clozapine treatment and may represent a continuing risk in some patients. Rarely (approximately one case per 3,000 patients), collapse can be profound and be accompanied by respiratory and/or cardiac arrest. Orthostatic hypotension is more likely to occur during initial titration in association with rapid dose escalation and may even occur on first dose. In one report, initial doses as low as 12.5 mg were associated with collapse and respiratory arrest. When restarting patients who have had even a brief interval off clozapine, i.e., 2 days or more since the last dose, it is recommended that treatment be reinitiated with one-half of a 25 mg tablet (12.5 mg) once or twice daily (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Some of the cases of collapse/respiratory arrest/cardiac arrest during initial treatment occurred in patients who were being administered benzodiazepines; similar events have been reported in patients taking other psychotropic drugs or even clozapine by itself. Although it has not been established that there is an interaction between clozapine and benzodiazepines or other psychotropics, caution is advised when clozapine is initiated in patients taking a benzodiazepine or any other psychotropic drug.
Tachycardia, which may be sustained, has also been observed in approximately 25% of patients taking clozapine, with patients having an average increase in pulse rate of 10 to 15 bpm. The sustained tachycardia is not simply a reflex response to hypotension, and is present in all positions monitored. Either tachycardia or hypotension may pose a serious risk for an individual with compromised cardiovascular function.
A minority of clozapine treated patients experience ECG repolarization changes similar to those seen with other antipsychotic drugs, including S-T segment depression and flattening or inversion of T waves, which all normalize after discontinuation of clozapine. The clinical significance of these changes is unclear. However, in clinical trials with clozapine, several patients experienced significant cardiac events, including ischemic changes, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and sudden death. In addition, there have been post-marketing reports of congestive heart failure, pericarditis, and pericardial effusions. Causality assessment was difficult in many of these cases because of serious preexisting cardiac disease and plausible alternative causes. Rare instances of sudden death have been reported in psychiatric patients, with or without associated antipsychotic drug treatment, and the relationship of these events to antipsychotic drug use is unknown.
Clozapine should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular and/or pulmonary disease, and the recommendation for gradual titration of dose should be carefully observed.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics including clozapine. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse events is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available.
Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of antidiabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmias).
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.
The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
There have been several reported cases of NMS in patients receiving clozapine alone or in combination with lithium or other CNS-active agents.
A syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome.
There are several reasons for predicting that clozapine may be different from other antipsychotic drugs in its potential for inducing tardive dyskinesia, including the preclinical finding that it has a relatively weak dopamine blocking effect and the clinical finding of a low incidence of certain acute extrapyramidal symptoms, e.g., dystonia. A few cases of tardive dyskinesia have been reported in patients on clozapine who had been previously treated with other antipsychotic agents, so that a causal relationship cannot be established. There have been no reports of tardive dyskinesia directly attributable to clozapine alone. Nevertheless, it cannot be concluded, without more extended experience, that clozapine is incapable of inducing this syndrome.
Both the risk of developing the syndrome and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses. There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic drug treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic drug treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptom suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, clozapine should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. As with any antipsychotic drug, chronic clozapine use should be reserved for patients who appear to be obtaining substantial benefit from the drug. In such patients, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on clozapine, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with clozapine despite the presence of the syndrome.
Because of the significant risk of agranulocytosis and seizure, both of which present a continuing risk over time, the extended treatment of patients failing to show an acceptable level of clinical response should ordinarily be avoided. In addition, the need for continuing treatment in patients exhibiting beneficial clinical responses should be periodically reevaluated. Although it is not known whether the risk would be increased, it is prudent either to avoid clozapine or use it cautiously in patients with a previous history of agranulocytosis induced by other drugs.
Cases of cardiomyopathy have been reported in patients treated with clozapine. The reporting rate for cardiomyopathy in clozapine-treated patients in the United States (8.9 per 100,000 person-years) was similar to an estimate of the cardiomyopathy incidence in the United States general population derived from the 1999 National Hospital Discharge Survey data (9.7 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 80% of clozapine-treated patients in whom cardiomyopathy was reported were less than 50 years of age; the duration of treatment with clozapine prior to cardiomyopathy diagnosis varied, but was > 6 months in 65% of the reports. Dilated cardiomyopathy was most frequently reported, although a large percentage of reports did not specify the type of cardiomyopathy. Signs and symptoms suggestive of cardiomyopathy, particularly exertional dyspnea, fatigue, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and peripheral edema should alert the clinician to perform further investigations. If the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy is confirmed, the prescriber should discontinue clozapine unless the benefit to the patient clearly outweighs the risk.
During clozapine therapy, patients may experience transient temperature elevations above 100.4°F (38°C), with the peak incidence within the first 3 weeks of treatment. While this fever is generally benign and self-limiting, it may necessitate discontinuing patients from treatment. On occasion, there may be an associated increase or decrease in WBC count. Patients with fever should be carefully evaluated to rule out the possibility of an underlying infectious process or the development of agranulocytosis. In the presence of high fever, the possibility of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) must be considered. There have been several reports of NMS in patients receiving clozapine, usually in combination with lithium or other CNS-active drugs. [See WARNINGS: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS).]
The possibility of pulmonary embolism should be considered in patients receiving clozapine who present with deep vein thrombosis, acute dyspnea, chest pain or with other respiratory signs and symptoms. As of December 31, 1993 there were 18 cases of fatal pulmonary embolism in association with clozapine therapy in users 10 to 54 years of age. Based upon the extent of use observed in the Clozapine National Registry, the mortality rate associated with pulmonary embolus was one death per 3,450 person-years of use. This rate was about 27.5 times higher than that in the general population of a similar age and gender (95% Confidence Interval; 17.1, 42.2). Deep vein thrombosis has also been observed in association with clozapine therapy. Whether pulmonary embolus can be attributed to clozapine or some characteristic(s) of its users is not clear, but the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis or respiratory symptomatology should suggest its presence.
Caution is advised in patients using clozapine who have concurrent hepatic disease. Hepatitis has been reported in both patients with normal and preexisting liver function abnormalities. In patients who develop nausea, vomiting, and/or anorexia during clozapine treatment, liver function tests should be performed immediately. If the elevation of these values is clinically relevant or if symptoms of jaundice occur, treatment with clozapine should be discontinued.
Clozapine has potent anticholinergic effects and care should be exercised in using this drug in the presence of narrow angle glaucoma.
Clozapine use has been associated with varying degrees of impairment of intestinal peristalsis, ranging from constipation to intestinal obstruction, fecal impaction and paralytic ileus (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). On rare occasions, these cases have been fatal. Constipation should be initially treated by ensuring adequate hydration, and use of ancillary therapy such as bulk laxatives. Consultation with a gastroenterologist is advisable in more serious cases.
Clozapine has potent anticholinergic effects and care should be exercised in using this drug in the presence of prostatic enlargement.
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
Because of initial sedation, clozapine may impair mental and/or physical abilities, especially during the first few days of therapy. The recommendations for gradual dose escalation should be carefully adhered to, and patients cautioned about activities requiring alertness.
Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with clozapine in patients with concomitant systemic diseases is limited. Nevertheless, caution is advisable in using clozapine in patients with renal or cardiac disease.
Use in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia
Caution is advised in patients being administered general anesthesia because of the CNS effects of clozapine. Check with the anesthesiologist regarding continuation of clozapine therapy in a patient scheduled for surgery.
Information for Patients
Physicians are advised to discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe clozapine:
- Patients who are to receive clozapine should be warned about the significant risk of developing agranulocytosis. Patients should be advised to report immediately the appearance of lethargy, weakness, fever, sore throat, malaise, mucous membrane ulceration or other possible signs of infection. Particular attention should be paid to any flu-like complaints or other symptoms that might suggest infection.
▪ Patients should be informed that clozapine tablets will be made available only through a special program designed to ensure the required blood monitoring in order to reduce the risk of developing agranulocytosis. Patients should be informed that their WBC count and ANC will be monitored as follows:
□Weekly blood tests are required for the first 6 months.
□If acceptable WBC counts and ANCs (WBC ≥ 3500/mm3 and ANC ≥ 2000/mm3) have been maintained during the first 6 months of continuous therapy, then WBC counts and ANCs can be monitored every 2 weeks for the next 6 months.
□Thereafter, if acceptable WBC counts and ANCs have been maintained during the second 6 months of continuous therapy, WBC counts and ANCs can be monitored every 4 weeks.
- Patients should be informed of the significant risk of seizure during clozapine treatment, and they should be advised to avoid driving and any other potentially hazardous activity while taking clozapine.
- Patients should be advised of the risk of orthostatic hypotension, especially during the period of initial dose titration.
- Patients should be informed that if they miss taking clozapine for more than 2 days, they should not restart their medication at the same dosage, but should contact their physician for dosing instructions.
- Patients should notify their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs or alcohol.
- Patients should notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy.
- Patients should not breast-feed an infant if they are taking clozapine.
The risks of using clozapine in combination with other drugs have not been systematically evaluated.
The mechanism of clozapine induced agranulocytosis is unknown; nonetheless, the possibility that causative factors may interact synergistically to increase the risk and/or severity of bone marrow suppression warrants consideration. Therefore, clozapine should not be used with other agents having a well-known potential to suppress bone marrow function.
Given the primary CNS effects of clozapine, caution is advised in using it concomitantly with other CNS-active drugs or alcohol.
Orthostatic hypotension in patients taking clozapine can, in rare cases (approximately one case per 3,000 patients), be accompanied by profound collapse and respiratory and/or cardiac arrest. Some of the cases of collapse/respiratory arrest/cardiac arrest during initial treatment occurred in patients who were being administered benzodiazepines; similar events have been reported in patients taking other psychotropic drugs or even clozapine by itself. Although it has not been established that there is an interaction between clozapine and benzodiazepines or other psychotropics, caution is advised when clozapine is initiated in patients taking a benzodiazepine or any other psychotropic drug.
Clozapine may potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive drugs and the anticholinergic effects of atropine-type drugs. The administration of epinephrine should be avoided in the treatment of drug induced hypotension because of a possible reverse epinephrine effect.
Clozapine is a substrate for many CYP 450 isozymes, in particular 1A2, 2D6, and 3A4. The risk of metabolic interactions caused by an effect on an individual isoform is therefore minimized. Nevertheless, caution should be used in patients receiving concomitant treatment with other drugs that are either inhibitors or inducers of these enzymes.
Concomitant administration of drugs known to induce cytochrome P450 enzymes may decrease the plasma levels of clozapine. Phenytoin, nicotine, and rifampin may decrease clozapine plasma levels, resulting in a decrease in effectiveness of a previously effective clozapine dose.
Concomitant administration of drugs known to inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450 isozymes may increase the plasma levels of clozapine. Cimetidine, caffeine, citalopram, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin may increase plasma levels of clozapine, potentially resulting in adverse effects. Although concomitant use of clozapine and carbamazepine is not recommended, it should be noted that discontinuation of concomitant carbamazepine administration may result in an increase in clozapine plasma levels.
In a study of schizophrenic patients who received clozapine under steady-state conditions, fluvoxamine or paroxetine was added in 16 and 14 patients, respectively. After 14 days of coadministration, mean trough concentrations of clozapine and its metabolites, N -desmethylclozapine and clozapine N -oxide, were elevated with fluvoxamine by about 3-fold compared to baseline concentrations. Paroxetine produced only minor changes in the levels of clozapine and its metabolites. However, other published reports describe modest elevations (less than 2-fold) of clozapine and metabolite concentrations when clozapine was taken with paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline. Therefore, such combined treatment should be approached with caution and patients should be monitored closely when clozapine is combined with these drugs, particularly with fluvoxamine. A reduced clozapine dose should be considered.
A subset (3% to 10%) of the population has reduced activity of certain drug metabolizing enzymes such as the cytochrome P450 isozyme P450 2D6. Such individuals are referred to as “poor metabolizers” of drugs such as debrisoquin, dextromethorphan, the tricyclic antidepressants, and clozapine. These individuals may develop higher than expected plasma concentrations of clozapine when given usual doses. In addition, certain drugs that are metabolized by this isozyme, including many antidepressants (clozapine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and others), may inhibit the activity of this isozyme, and thus may make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers with regard to concomitant therapy with other drugs metabolized by this enzyme system, leading to drug interaction.
Concomitant use of clozapine with other drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either clozapine or the other drug. Therefore, coadministration of clozapine with other drugs that are metabolized by this isozyme, including antidepressants, phenothiazines, carbamazepine, and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide and encainide), or that inhibit this enzyme (e.g., quinidine), should be approached with caution.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in long-term studies in mice and rats at doses approximately 7 times the typical human dose on a mg/kg basis. Fertility in male and female rats was not adversely affected by clozapine. Clozapine did not produce genotoxic or mutagenic effects when assayed in appropriate bacterial and mammalian tests.
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses of approximately 2 to 4 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to clozapine. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, and in view of the desirability of keeping the administration of all drugs to a minimum during pregnancy, this drug should be used only if clearly needed.
Animal studies suggest that clozapine may be excreted in breast milk and have an effect on the nursing infant. Therefore, women receiving clozapine should not breast-feed.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical Studies of clozapine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Orthostatic hypotension can occur with clozapine treatment and tachycardia, which may be sustained, has been observed in about 25% of patients taking clozapine (see BOXED WARNING: Other Adverse Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects). Elderly patients, particularly those with compromised cardiovascular functioning, may be more susceptible to these effects.
Also, elderly patients may be particularly susceptible to the anticholinergic effects of clozapine, such as urinary retention and constipation. (See PRECAUTIONS: Anticholinergic Toxicity.)
Dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Other reported clinical experience does suggest that the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women (see WARNINGS: Tardive Dyskinesia).