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Clolar (Clofarabine) - Summary



Clolar® (clofarabine) injection contains clofarabine, a purine nucleoside anti-metabolite. Clolar® (1 mg/mL) is supplied in a 20 mL, single-use vial. The 20 mL vial contains 20 mg clofarabine formulated in 20 mL unbuffered normal saline (comprised of Water for Injection, USP, and Sodium Chloride USP). The pH range of the solution is 4.5 to 7.5. The solution is sterile, clear and practically colorless, and free from foreign matter.

Clolar® is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after at least two prior regimens. This use is based on the induction of complete responses. Randomized trials demonstrating increased survival or other clinical benefit have not been conducted.

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Published Studies Related to Clolar (Clofarabine)

Clofarabine +/- fludarabine with once daily i.v. busulfan as pretransplant conditioning therapy for advanced myeloid leukemia and MDS. [2011.06]
Although a combination of i.v...

A randomized study of clofarabine versus clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine as front-line therapy for patients aged 60 years and older with acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. [2008.09.01]
We previously reported the feasibility of clofarabine and cytarabine combinations in AML. Questions remain as to (1) the therapeutic advantage of this combination and (2) the role of lower doses of clofarabine and cytarabine in older patients... This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no.

Clofarabine doubles the response rate in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia but does not improve survival. [2013]
Better treatment is required for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not considered fit for intensive chemotherapy. We report a randomized comparison of low-dose Ara-C (LDAC) vs the novel nucleoside, clofarabine, in untreated older patients with AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine in pediatric relapsed/refractory leukemia. [2011.08.20]
PURPOSE: To assess the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine in children with relapsed/refractory leukemia... CONCLUSION: Sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine is tolerable and shows activity in relapsed/refractory pediatric AML.

Early UK experience in the use of clofarabine in the treatment of relapsed and refractory paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. [2011.08]
Clofarabine is a second-generation purine nucleoside analogue, which has shown promising activity in relapsed and refractory paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)... Responses were seen in both B and T cell disease and in patients with adverse cytogenetics.

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Clinical Trials Related to Clolar (Clofarabine)

Clofarabine vs Clofarabine in Plus With Low-Dose Ara-C in Previously Untreated Patients With AML and High-Risk MDS. [Completed]
Clofarabine is a chemotherapy drug that is designed to interfere with the growth and development of cancer cells. Ara-C is a chemotherapy drug which is approved for the treatment of AML and MDS. Although there is experience with the combination of both drugs, there have not been any phase 1 trials that explored the particular doses and schedule of clofarabine plus ara-C that a patient may receive.

PK Study of Oral and IV Clofarabine in High Risk Myelodysplasia+Acute Leukemias [Recruiting]
This is a non-blinded, non-randomized pharmacokinetic study to determine the oral bioavailability of clofarabine, and the effect of cimetidine on clofarabine pharmacokinetics in patients with poor-risk acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Clofarabine, Etoposide, and Mitoxantrone for Relapsed and Refractory Acute Leukemias [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to establish toxicity and a maximum tolerated dose recommended phase 2 dose of Clofarabine in combination with Etoposide and Mitoxantrone for therapy of relapsed or refractory acute leukemias. The investigators will observe responses with these therapy agents and assess the impact of Clofarabine interacting with Etoposide in induction of DNA strand breaks.

Low-dose Oral Clofarabine for the Treatment of IPSS INT-1, INT-2 or HIGH Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia [Recruiting]
Study and Dose Rationale The safety profile of clofarabine appears acceptable within the target populations studied to date in the clinical studies summarized in Section 2. 3. clofarabine has demonstrated anti-cancer activity through inhibition of DNA synthesis and repair, induction of apoptosis, and possibly through other mechanisms. The effect of clofarabine on DNA methylation has not been determined. Numerous responses have been observed after treatment with clofarabine in heavily pre-treated relapsed/refractory patients with ALL or AML.

Recently 2 small studies were conducted at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center looking at the use of clofarabine in the treatment of MDS. 31 The first study randomized patients in a Bayesian fashion to 15 vs. 30 mg/m2 given IV daily for 5 days every 4 to 8 weeks. In the 15 mg/m2 arm 3 of 7 patients had a complete remission according to the International Working Group (IWG)32 criteria for response. In the 30 mg/m2 arm, 2 of 6 patients had a complete remission while 1 patient had hematologic improvement according to IWG criteria. In the second study, patients were treated with oral clofarabine at a dose of 40 mg/m2 daily for 5 days every 4 to 8 weeks. Two of 7 patients had hematologic improvement according to IWG criteria. The main toxicities in both trials were prolonged myelosuppression and liver function abnormalities.

Preclinical animal models have shown increased clofarabine activity against multiple different tumors with repetitive daily dosing for prolonged periods of time. 33 The use of an oral therapy is advantageous for the treatment of a chronic malignancy such as MDS. Furthermore, based on the pre-clinical data mentioned above daily repetitive dosing over a protracted period may provide increased efficacy. Since most MDS patients are elderly and may not tolerate aggressive therapy, a schedule of administration of low dose oral clofarabine over a protracted period may provide the advantage of increased efficacy without severe toxicity. The safety of a protracted daily dosage of oral clofarabine in humans has not been determined. The dosing scheme for this study will therefore include a dose escalating phase I component followed by a phase II component. The starting dose will be 5 mg (fixed dose) orally daily for 10 days. This dose will be escalated in cohorts of 3 patients as tolerated up to a maximal dose of 15 mg (fixed dose) orally for 10 consecutive days. Note that at the latter dose a patient will receive a total of 150 mg of clofarabine per cycle, which far lower than the MD Anderson study of oral clofarabine in MDS whereby patients received 200 mg/m2 per cycle.


Study Overview The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and toxicity of Clofarabine administered orally at a low daily dose for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes.

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant With Clofarabine, Ara-C and TBI for AML and ALL [Recruiting]
Hypothesis: Myeloablative conditioning using a dose escalation of clofarabine in combination with cytarabine (ARA-C) and total body irradiation (TBI) will lead to improved survival for previously untransplanted children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL)followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloSCT).

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Reports of Suspected Clolar (Clofarabine) Side Effects

Pyrexia (16)Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (16)Sepsis (15)Febrile Neutropenia (14)Neutropenia (12)Pleural Effusion (9)Renal Failure Acute (9)Death (8)Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (8)Renal Failure (8)more >>

Page last updated: 2014-11-30

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