DrugLib.com — Drug Information Portal

Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more

Claforan (Cefotaxime Sodium) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Cefotaxime sodium is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefotaxime has activity in the presence of some beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases, of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Resistance

Resistance to cefotaxime is primarily through hydrolysis by beta-lactamase, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), and decreased permeability.

Susceptibility to cefotaxime will vary geographically and may change over time; local susceptibility data should be consulted, if available. Cefotaxime has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section:

Gram-positive bacteria

Enterococcus spp. [ Enterococcus species may be intrinsically resistant to cefotaxime.]
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only)
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
Streptococcus spp. (Viridans group streptococci)

Gram-negative bacteria

Acinetobacter spp.
Citrobacter spp. [Most extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenemase-producing isolates are resistant to cefotaxime.]
Enterobacter spp.
Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella pneumoniae)
Morganella morganii
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including beta-lactamase-positive and negative strains)
Neisseria meningitidis
Proteus mirabilis
Proteus vulgaris
Providencia rettgeri
Providencia stuartii
Serratia marcescens

Anaerobic bacteria

Bacteroides spp., including some isolates of Bacteroides fragilis
Clostridium spp. (most isolates of Clostridium difficile are resistant)
Fusobacterium spp. (including Fusobacterium nucleatum)
Peptococcus spp.
Peptostreptococcus spp.

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for cefotaxime. However, the efficacy of cefotaxime in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-negative bacteria

Providencia spp.
Salmonella spp. (including Salmonella typhi)
Shigella spp.

OVERDOSAGE

The acute toxicity of CLAFORAN was evaluated in neonatal and adult mice and rats. Significant mortality was seen at parenteral doses in excess of 6000 mg/kg/day in all groups. Common toxic signs in animals that died were a decrease in spontaneous activity, tonic and clonic convulsions, dyspnea, hypothermia, and cyanosis. Cefotaxime sodium overdosage has occurred in patients. Most cases have shown no overt toxicity. The most frequent reactions were elevations of BUN and creatinine. There is a risk of reversible encephalopathy in cases of administration of high doses of beta-lactam antibiotics including cefotaxime. No specific antidote exists. Patients who receive an acute overdosage should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLAFORAN is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to cefotaxime sodium, or the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

REFERENCES

  • 1.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.
  • 2.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobials Susceptibility Tests; Twenty-Third Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S23, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2013.
  • 3.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard - Eleventh Edition. CLSI document M02-A11, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.
  • 4.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard - Eighth Edition. CLSI document M11-A8, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.
  • 5.Cockcroft, D.W. and Gault, M.H.: Prediction of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine, Nephron 16:31-41, 1976.

Revised August 2014

Manufactured for:
sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
A SANOFI COMPANY

Claforan Injection in Galaxy® Containers:

Manufactured by:
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Deerfield, IL 60015

Manufactured for:
sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
A SANOFI COMPANY

© 2014 sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

Galaxy, Travasol and Viaflex are registered trademarks of Baxter International Inc.

-- advertisement -- The American Red Cross
 
Home | About Us | Contact Us | Site usage policy | Privacy policy

All Rights reserved - Copyright DrugLib.com, 2006-2017