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Claforan (Cefotaxime Sodium) - Summary

 
 



CLAFORAN SUMMARY

CLAFORAN®
Sterile (cefotaxime for injection, USP)
and
Injection (cefotaxime injection, USP)

Sterile CLAFORAN (cefotaxime sodium) is a semisynthetic, broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for parenteral administration. It is the sodium salt of 7-[2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl) glyoxylamido]-3-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate 72 (Z)-(o-methyloxime), acetate (ester). CLAFORAN contains approximately 50.5 mg (2.2 mEq) of sodium per gram of cefotaxime activity. Solutions of CLAFORAN range from very pale yellow to light amber depending on the concentration and the diluent used. The pH of the injectable solutions usually ranges from 5.0 to 7.5. The CAS Registry Number is 64485-93-4.

Treatment

CLAFORAN is indicated for the treatment of patients with serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below.

(1) Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae), Streptococcus pyogenes [Efficacy for this organism, in this organ system, has been studied in fewer than 10 infections.] (Group A streptococci) and other streptococci (excluding enterococci, e.g., Enterococcus faecalis), Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin resistant strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens , Enterobacter species, indole positive Proteus and Pseudomonas species (including P. aeruginosa).

(2) Genitourinary infections. Urinary tract infections caused by Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus , (penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing), Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris , Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii , Providencia rettgeri , Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas species (including P. aeruginosa). Also, uncomplicated gonorrhea (cervical/urethral and rectal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including penicillinase producing strains.

(3) Gynecologic infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis and pelvic cellulitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species, Enterococcus species, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides species (including Bacteroides fragilis ), Clostridium species, and anaerobic cocci (including Peptostreptococcus species and Peptococcus species) and Fusobacterium species (including F. nucleatum ).
CLAFORAN, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate anti-chlamydial coverage should be added.

(4) Bacteremia/Septicemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species (including S. pneumonia).

(5) Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococci) and other streptococci, Enterococcus species, Acinetobacter species, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter species (including C. freundii ), Enterobacter species, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris , Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri , Pseudomonas species, Serratia marcescens, Bacteroides species, and anaerobic cocci (including Peptostreptococcus species and Peptococcus species).

(6) Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis caused by Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species, and anaerobic cocci (including Peptostreptococcus species and Peptococcus species) Proteus mirabilis , and Clostridium species.

(7) Bone and/or joint infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing strains), Streptococcus species (including S. pyogenes ), Pseudomonas species (including P. aeruginosa ), and Proteus mirabilis .

(8) Central nervous system infections, e.g., meningitis and ventriculitis, caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli .

Although many strains of enterococci (e.g., S. faecalis) and Pseudomonas species are resistant to cefotaxime sodium in vitro, CLAFORAN has been used successfully in treating patients with infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Specimens for bacteriologic culture should be obtained prior to therapy in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to CLAFORAN. Therapy may be instituted before results of susceptibility studies are known; however, once these results become available, the antibiotic treatment should be adjusted accordingly.

In certain cases of confirmed or suspected gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis or in patients with other serious infections in which the causative organism has not been identified, CLAFORAN may be used concomitantly with an aminoglycoside. The dosage recommended in the labeling of both antibiotics may be given and depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's condition. Renal function should be carefully monitored, especially if higher dosages of the aminoglycosides are to be administered or if therapy is prolonged, because of the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. It is possible that nephrotoxicity may be potentiated if CLAFORAN is used concomitantly with an aminoglycoside.

Prevention

The administration of CLAFORAN preoperatively reduces the incidence of certain infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures (e.g., abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract surgery) that may be classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated.

In patients undergoing cesarean section, intraoperative (after clamping the umbilical cord) and postoperative use of CLAFORAN may also reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.

Effective use for elective surgery depends on the time of administration. To achieve effective tissue levels, CLAFORAN should be given 1/2 or 1 1/2 hours before surgery. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.

For patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, preoperative bowel preparation by mechanical cleansing as well as with a non-absorbable antibiotic (e.g., neomycin) is recommended.

If there are signs of infection, specimens for culture should be obtained for identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapy may be instituted.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLAFORAN and other antibacterial drugs, CLAFORAN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.


See all Claforan indications & dosage >>

NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Claforan (Cefotaxime)

Single daily amikacin versus cefotaxime in the short-course treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics. [2005.11.21]
CONCLUSION: In this study, single daily doses of amikacin in the treatment of SBP in cirrhotics were not associated with an increased incidence of renal impairment or nephrotoxicity. However, a 5-d regimen of amikacin is less effective than a 5-d regimen of cefotaxime in the SBP treatment.

The impact of catheter-restricted filling with cefotaxime and heparin on the lifespan of temporary hemodialysis catheters: a case controlled study. [2005.11]
BACKGROUND: Reduction in the rates of major complications such as infection and thrombosis that limit the lifespan of hemodialysis (HD) catheters could conceivably lead to improved survival of "temporary" non-tunneled HD catheters (NTCs). This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the "locking"' of a broad-spectrum antibiotic-cefotaxime with heparin, on the incidence of catheter thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and the NTC lifespan... CONCLUSIONS: Cefotaxime-heparin locks led to a significant reduction in catheter thrombosis and CRBSI incidence. The enhanced NTC lifespan thus achieved could help physicians in better assessment of the patient's vasculature prior to the placement of permanent vascular access.

Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone cerebrospinal fluid levels during treatment of bacterial meningitis in children. [2005.11]
Cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftriaxone (CRO) were compared for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and antimicrobial efficacy in cases of bacterial meningitis in children. This was a comparative study of CRO (100mg/kg once daily) and CTX (50 mg/kg 6 hourly) in the treatment of children with bacterial meningitis...

[Incidence of infected surgical wound and prophylaxis with cefotaxime in cesarean section] [2005.10]
BACKGROUND: Surgical wound infection after cesarean section varies from 2.5 to 16.1%, thus the utilization of antibiotic prophylaxis has increased routinely and irrationally. Despite this, we can still see cases of infections... Then, the cases with risk factors should be analyzed carefully for the cefotaxime administration.

Comparison of levofloxacin and cefotaxime combined with ofloxacin for ICU patients with community-acquired pneumonia who do not require vasopressors. [2005.07]
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin (L) as monotherapy in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in comparison with therapy using a combination of cefotaxime (C) plus ofloxacin (O)... CONCLUSION: L therapy was at least as effective as the combination therapy of C + O in the treatment of a subset of patients with CAP requiring ICU admission. This conclusion cannot be extrapolated to patients requiring mechanical ventilation or vasopressors (ie, those patients in shock).

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Reports of Suspected Claforan (Cefotaxime) Side Effects

Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (22)Agranulocytosis (9)Pyrexia (6)Acute Generalised Exanthematous Pustulosis (6)Lymphopenia (5)Lymphadenopathy (4)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (4)Eosinophilia (4)Neutropenia (4)Confusional State (3)more >>


Page last updated: 2006-11-04

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