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Cefazolin (Cefazolin Sodium) - Summary

 
 



CEFAZOLIN SUMMARY

Cefazolin Injection contains cefazolin sodium a semi-synthetic cephalosporin for parenteral administration. It is the sodium salt of 3-{[(5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio]methyl}-8-oxo-7-(2-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl) acetamido]5-thia-1-azabicyclo (4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid.

Cefazolin Injection is indicated in the treatment of the following serious infections due to susceptible organisms:

RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered to be the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

Cefazolin Injection is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of Cefazolin Injection in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species and some strains of enterobacter and enterococci.

SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS due to Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and other strains of streptococci.

BILIARY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Escherichia coli, various strains of streptococci, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus.

BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS due to Staphylococcus aureus.

GENITAL INFECTIONS (i.e., prostatitis, epididymitis) due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species and some strains of enterococci.

SEPTICEMIA due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.

ENDOCARDITIS due to Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine susceptibility of the causative organism to Cefazolin Injection.

PERIOPERATIVE PROPHYLAXIS: The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin Injection preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures which are classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal hysterectomy, and cholecystectomy in high-risk patients such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones).

The perioperative use of Cefazolin Injection may also be effective in surgical patients in whom infection at the operative site would present a serious risk (e.g., during open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty).

The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin Injection should usually be discontinued within a 24-hour period after the surgical procedure. In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of Cefazolin Injection may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.

If there are signs of infections, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapy may be instituted. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefazolin Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Cefazolin Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.


See all Cefazolin indications & dosage >>

NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Cefazolin

Cefazolin bolus and continuous administration for elective cardiac surgery: improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. [2010.08]
OBJECTIVE: Cefazolin (1-2 g bolus at induction possibly repeated after cardiopulmonary bypass) remains the standard for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery. Data indicate, however, that it is underdosed with this dosing schedule. A prospective, randomized study comparing intermittent versus loading dose plus continuous infusion for the same total dose of cefazolin was performed to assess which modality is pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically advantageous... CONCLUSIONS: Administration of cefazolin as bolus plus continuous infusion has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages relative to intermittent administration. It provides more stable serum levels, lower interpatient variability, and higher myocardial tissue penetration. Copyright 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous cefazolin in patients with clean surgical wounds. [2008.12]
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infection is a common postoperative nosocomial infection. Surgeons frequently treat operative patients with protective antibiotics and often choose cefazolin as the drug. Treatment schemes include both preoperative intravenous dosing and intraoperative dosing by irrigation. This study was designed to measure cefazolin concentrations both in serum and in wound drain fluid after intravenous dosing and after irrigation... CONCLUSIONS: Protective cefazolin concentrations in the wound can be achieved by both intravenous and irrigation delivery. Wound irrigation produces higher concentrations for longer periods of time.

Administration of cefazolin prior to skin incision is superior to cefazolin at cord clamping in preventing postcesarean infectious morbidity: a randomized, controlled trial. [2007.05]
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether the administration of cefazolin prior to skin incision was superior to administration at the time of umbilical cord clamping for the prevention of postcesarean infectious morbidity... CONCLUSION: Administration of prophylactic cefazolin prior to skin incision resulted in a decrease in both endomyometritis and total postcesarean infectious morbidity, compared with administration at the time of cord clamping. This dosing did not result in increased neonatal septic workups or complications.

[A randomized study comparing amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with cefazolin as antimicrobial prophylaxis in laparotomic gynecologic surgery] [2006.04]
AIM: The aim of this paper was to compare amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with cefazolin as ultra-short term prophylaxis in laparotomic gynecologic surgery... CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-short term prophylaxis with both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin is safe in elective laparotomic gynecologic surgery.

Cefazolin plus netilmicin versus cefazolin plus ceftazidime for treating CAPD peritonitis: effect on residual renal function. [2005.11]
BACKGROUND. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) treatment guidelines for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis 2000 recommended the use of cefazolin plus ceftazidime as the initial empirical therapy in patients with residual renal function (RRF). However, this treatment regimen has not been compared with the conventional regimen of cefazolin plus netilmicin in prospective, randomized controlled trials... CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal cefazolin plus netilmicin and cefazolin plus ceftazidime have similar efficacy as empirical treatment for CAPD peritonitis. In CAPD patients with RRF, significant but reversible reduction in RRF and 24-hour urine volume could occur after an episode of peritonitis, despite successful treatment by i.p. antibiotics. The effect of i.p. cefazolin plus netilmicin, or i.p. cefazolin plus ceftazidime on RRF in CAPD patients with peritonitis does not appear to be different. Our findings do not support the routine use of cefazolin and ceftazidime as the empirical treatment for CAPD peritonitis.

more studies >>

Clinical Trials Related to Cefazolin

Cefazolin Pharmacokinetics: Elimination Clearance in Neonates [Not yet recruiting]
To document cefazolin disposition (concentration/time profile, protein binding, metabolism, renal elimination characteristics) and its covariates in neonates following intravenous administration of the drug at induction of anesthesia, prior to an invasive procedure

To evaluate if optimalisation of cefazolin dose regimen during neonatal life is needed

An Open Label Study to Describe the Pharmacokinetics of Cefazolin in Preterm Neonates [Not yet recruiting]
This is a phase I open label multi-dose study to investigative the pharmacokinetics and safety of cefazolin in infants <121 days of age and < 28 weeks gestation with suspected sepsis. There will be two cohorts of 6 infants each: 1) >48 hours of age and ≤28 days and 2) >28 days of age and <121 days of age. The study requires administration of the study drug over 2 days followed by 1 week of safety monitoring. Six 200 µL pK samples will be obtained over the 2 days of drug administration. The risks are reasonable vs. the benefits and have been minimized appropriately. There may be benefit to the subjects (administration of empirical antimicrobial therapy), and information from the study may benefit a large number of other infants in whom the drug is currently being administered despite the lack of PK data in this population.

Pre-operative Prophylaxis With Vancomycin and Cefazolin in Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery Patients [Recruiting]
The investigators hope to learn 1) if the addition of prophylaxis with vancomycin will decrease the rate of cefazolin non-susceptible SSI's, in high risk population 2) to develop better understanding of vancomycin and cefazolin pharmacokinetics in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass 3) to assess the barriers to vancomycin dosing peri-operatively 4) to assess side effects and risks associated with peri-operative vancomycin administration. This will allow us to improve patient care by better understanding the benefits or the risks of peri-operative vancomycin administration and potentially decrease cefazolin-resistant surgical site infections.

In addition, this study gives us the opportunity to evaluate cefazolin and vancomycin pharmacokinetics on children on CPB.

The investigators will take blood samples from 20 patients. In 10 patients the investigators will do Cefazolin pK analysis and in the other 10 the investigators will do pK Vancomycin analysis. For the remainder of 292 patients, only prospective chart review will be done to determine the incidence of SSI's.

This data will be compared with 936 controls who received only Cefazolin pre-operatively as prophylaxis for SSI's.

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Duration of Antibiotics Treatment With Cefazolin and Clarithromycin in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to compare the neonatal outcome and infant neurologic outcome whose mother were treated with cefazolin plus clarithromycin for one week or until delivery after preterm premature rupture of membrane.

Comparison of Intravenous Cefazolin Plus Oral Probenecid With Oral Cephalexin for the Treatment of Cellulitis [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to determine whether oral cephalexin is equivalent to intravenous cefazolin plus oral probenecid for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections in patients that present to the emergency department.

more trials >>

Reports of Suspected Cefazolin Side Effects

Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (17)Anaphylactic Reaction (15)Anaphylactic Shock (9)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (8)International Normalised Ratio Increased (7)Blood Pressure Decreased (7)Erythema (6)Drug Eruption (5)Urticaria (5)Pyrexia (5)more >>


Page last updated: 2010-10-05

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