Benzoyl Peroxide in
a Urea Vehicle
Benzoyl Peroxide 5.75% Wash is intended for topical administration and contains Benzoyl Peroxide for use in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Benzoyl Peroxide is an oxidizing agent that possesses antibacterial properties and is classified as a keratolytic. Benzoyl Peroxide (C14H10O4) is represented by the following chemical structure:
Each mL of Benzoyl Peroxide 5.75% Wash contains 57.5 mg of benzoyl peroxide in an emulsion-based formulation consisting of: purified water, urea (10%), sodium lauryl sulfoacetate, glycerin, propylene glycol, magnesium aluminum silicate, disodium oleamido MEA-sulfosuccinate, sodium octoxynol-2 ethane sulfonate, cetyl alcohol, laureth-12, glyceryl stearate/PEG-100 stearate, xanthan gum, citric acid, sodium citrate, carbomer and disodium EDTA.
The mechanism of action of Benzoyl Peroxide is not totally understood but its antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes is thought to be a major mode of action. In addition, patients treated with Benzoyl Peroxide show a reduction in lipids and free fatty acids, and mild desquamation (drying and peeling activity) with simultaneous reduction in comedones and acne lesions.
Little is known about the percutaneous penetration, metabolism, and excretion of Benzoyl Peroxide, although it has been shown that Benzoyl Peroxide absorbed by the skin is metabolized to benzoic acid and then excreted as benzoate in the urine. There is no evidence of systemic toxicity caused by Benzoyl Peroxide in humans.