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Attenuvax (Measles Virus Vaccine Live) - Summary

 
 



ATTENUVAX SUMMARY

ATTENUVAX (Measles Virus Vaccine Live) is a live virus vaccine for vaccination against measles (rubeola).

ATTENUVAX is indicated for vaccination against measles in persons 12 months of age or older.


See all Attenuvax indications & dosage >>

NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Attenuvax (Measles Vaccine)

Increasing the time of exposure to aerosol measles vaccine elicits an immune response equivalent to that seen in 9-month-old Mexican children given the same dose subcutaneously. [2011.08.01]
BACKGROUND: A 30-second aerosol measles vaccination successfully primes children 12 months of age and older but is poorly immunogenic when given to 9-month-old children. We examined the immune responses when increasing the duration to aerosol exposure in 9-month-olds... CONCLUSIONS: Increasing exposure time to aerosol measles vaccine elicits immune responses that are comparable to those seen when an equivalent dose is administered by the subcutaneous route in 9-month-old infants.

Safety and immunogenicity of early measles vaccination in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the United States: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) protocol 225. [2011.07]
BACKGROUND.: ACTG (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 225, a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial in the United States evaluated reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2 vaccination regimens: monovalent measles vaccine (Attenuvax) at 6 months of age and measles, mumps, and rubella, live attenuated (MMRII) vaccine at 12 months of age (2D), or only MMRII at 12 months of age (1D) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV-infected) (POS) and uninfected (NEG) children in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART) period... CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected children pre-HAART, Attenuvax at 6 months was well tolerated and immunogenic. These data support the current World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation to administer a first dose of measles vaccine at 6 months of age to HIV-infected children. (c) The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Persistence of vaccine-induced measles antibody beyond age 12 months: a comparison of response to one and two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine among HIV-infected and uninfected children in Malawi. [2011.07]
BACKGROUND: Previously, we demonstrated that measles antibody prevalence was lower at age 12 months among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than uninfected children following measles vaccination (MV) at ages 6 and 9 months. Among HIV-uninfected children, measles antibody prevalence was lower among 1- than 2-dose MV recipients...

Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine during the second year of life: An open, randomized controlled trial. [2011.06.06]
Co-administration of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) with MMRV vaccine was investigated in 1000 12-23-month old children randomized (3:3:1:1) to receive co-administered ACWY-TT+MMRV, or a single dose of ACWY-TT, MMRV or MenC-CRM(197)... This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00474266.

Immunogenicity and safety of a measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine following a 4-week or a 12-month interval between two doses. [2011.05.17]
BACKGROUND: The MMRV combination vaccine, Priorix-Tetra, is currently licensed in several European countries using a two-dose schedule in infants aged >/=9 months, with a preferred 6-week to 3-month interval between doses. This study was undertaken to generate safety and immunogenicity data for two doses of MMRV vaccine administered according to dose schedules using the shortest permitted interval of 4 weeks versus a longer interval of 12 months, which would allow flexible adaptation to local immunization calendars... CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of MMRV vaccine administered in the second year of life elicited adequate immunogenicity and were well-tolerated whether administered with a dose interval of 4 weeks or 12 months. Copyright (c) 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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Clinical Trials Related to Attenuvax (Measles Vaccine)

Trial of Additional Measles Vaccine to Reduce Child Mortality [Recruiting]
Background: All observational studies and a few randomised controlled trials (RCT) suggest that early measles vaccine (MV), in particular an early two-dose strategy, has a much better effect on overall mortality than later MV. These results suggest that MV has a non-measles related beneficial effect on child survival.

Objective: To evaluate in a multi-center RCT the effect on child survival and other health indicators of a two-dose measles vaccination schedule by providing an additional dose of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) MV as soon as possible after 4 months of age as well as the standard measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Three trials are planned in Guinea-Bissau, Ghana and Burkina Faso. The investigators will test a 50% reduction of mortality at each site separately and a 32% reduction overall. Based on the results from the RCT, the investigators will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

Design, Guinea-Bissau: Newborns are followed through the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of the Bandim Health Project. Information on routine and campaign vaccinations will be collected regularly through home visits and health centre registers. Four weeks after having received the third dose of pentavalent vaccine (Penta3), the children will be eligible for enrollment in the trial if they are not severely ill. Eligible children will be invited to take part in the trial. Provided parental informed consent is given, the children will be randomised to MV at 4 and 9 months of age or only at 9 months. Cost estimates will be based on consumption of services and average cost per unit. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio will be calculated.

Sample size, follow-up and analyses: To detect a 50% reduction in overall mortality at each site the investigators intend to enroll at least 2,250 children in Guinea-Bissau. The children will be followed for survival and hospitalisations to 3 years of age or to the end of the study after three years. The investigators will analyse the effects by site and combined; by sex and season; possible interactions with other interventions like campaigns with drugs, vaccines or micronutrients will be explored.

Antibody study: 450 children will be enrolled in a subgroup study to examine the effect of maternal antibody levels on subsequent antibody responses to MV. The children will be followed to 24 months of age and samples collected at 4, 9 and 24 months of age.

Trial of Additional Measles Vaccine to Reduce Child Mortality. Burkina Faso. [Not yet recruiting]
Background: All observational studies and a few randomised controlled trials (RCT) suggest that early measles vaccine (MV), in particular an early two-dose strategy, has a much better effect on overall mortality than later MV. These results suggest that MV has a non-measles related beneficial effect on child survival.

Objective: To evaluate in a multi-center RCT the effect on child survival and other health indicators of a two-dose measles vaccination schedule by providing an additional dose of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) MV as soon as possible after 4 months of age as well as the standard measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Three trials are planned in Guinea-Bissau, Ghana and Burkina Faso. The investigators will test a 50% reduction of mortality at each site separately and a 32% reduction overall. Based on the results from the RCT, the investigators will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

Design, Burkina Faso: Newborns are followed through the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of the Centre de Recherche en Sante de Nouna. Information on routine and campaign vaccinations will be collected regularly through home visits and health centre registers. Four weeks after having received the third dose of pentavalent vaccine (Penta3), the children will be eligible for enrollment in the trial if they are not severely ill. Eligible children will be invited to take part in the trial. Provided parental informed consent is given, the children will be randomised to MV at 4 and 9 months of age or only at 9 months. Cost estimates will be based on consumption of services and average cost per unit. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio will be calculated.

Sample size, follow-up and analyses: To detect a 50% reduction in overall mortality at each site the investigators intend to enroll at least 2,650 children in Burkina Faso. The children will be followed for survival and hospitalisations to 3 years of age or to the end of the study after three years. The investigators will analyse the effects by site and combined; by sex and season; possible interactions with other interventions like campaigns with drugs, vaccines or micronutrients will be explored.

Antibody study: 450 children will be enrolled in a subgroup study to examine the effect of maternal antibody levels on subsequent antibody responses to MV. The children will be followed to 24 months of age and samples collected at 4, 9 and 24 months of age.

A Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Investigational Vaccine Trial [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to test the safety of a measles, mumps, and rubella study vaccine made from a new measles stock seed (a component of the vaccine made in 2003) with rHA (recombinant human albumin).

Additional Measles Vaccine at 4 Months of Age [Recruiting]
Overall objective: To conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine whether an early two-dose measles vaccination (MV) strategy at 4 and 9 months will reduce child mortality compared with the WHO strategy of one dose of MV at 9 months.

Specific hypotheses Hypothesis I) Two doses of MV at 4 and 9 months compared with the standard dose of MV at 9 months will reduce mortality by 30% between 4 months and 5 years of age1. As in a previous trial it is expected that the beneficial effect is strongest for girls.

Hypothesis II) Children receiving MV at 4 months in the presence of maternal measles antibodies (MatAb) will have 35% lower mortality between 4 months and 5 years of age than children receiving MV at 4 months with no detectable MatAb.

Implications: These hypotheses are based on a previous RCT showing strong beneficial effects of providing an early measles vaccine, in particular among children with MatAb.

Prophylactic Antibiotics in Measles [Completed]
Objective It is the objective to test whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics in measles infection will reduce the incidence of post-measles pneumonia and/or admissions to hospital with 50%. The possible impact on other complications of severe measles will also be measured.

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Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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