APIDRA™ (insulin glulisine [rDNA origin]) is a human insulin analog that is a rapid-acting, parenteral blood glucose lowering agent. Insulin glulisine is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of
(K12). Insulin glulisine differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid.
APIDRA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with diabetes mellitus for the control of hyperglycemia.
APIDRA has a more rapid onset of action and a shorter duration of action than regular human insulin. APIDRA should normally be used in regimens that include a longer-acting insulin or basal insulin analog. (See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
APIDRA may also be infused subcutaneously by external insulin infusion pumps. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Usage in Pumps, Information for Patients, Mixing of Insulins, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, RECOMMENDED STORAGE.)
Published Studies Related to Apidra (Insulin Glulisine)
Effects of initiation and titration of a single pre-prandial dose of insulin glulisine while continuing titrated insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes: a 6-month 'proof-of-concept' study. [2011.11]
AIM: Stepwise intensification of insulin treatment to match the progressive decline of endogenous insulin secretion has been shown to be an effective management strategy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy of initiating and titrating a single bolus dose of insulin glulisine to baseline insulin glargine plus oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) was investigated... CONCLUSIONS: In people with T2DM inadequately controlled on basal insulin plus OHAs, adding a single injection of insulin glulisine prior to the main meal significantly improves glucose control without undesired side effects. (c) 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Insulin glulisine compared to insulin aspart and to insulin lispro administered by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in patients with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. [2011.06]
BACKGROUND: In a previous pilot study comparing insulin glulisine (GLU) with insulin aspart (ASP) administered by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), GLU-treated patients did show a trend toward fewer catheter occlusions compared with ASP-treated patients. Here we performed a randomized open-label, three-way crossover, controlled multicenter study comparing GLU with ASP and insulin lispro (LIS)... CONCLUSIONS: GLU was not superior to ASP and LIS with no significant difference seen among GLU, ASP, and LIS in CSII use with respect to unexplained hyperglycemia and/or perceived catheter set occlusion. GLU was associated with a higher frequency of symptomatic hypoglycemia, possibly because of slight overdosing, as previous trials suggested lower insulin requirements when GLU is initiated in type 1 diabetes.
Effects of insulin and oral anti-diabetic agents on glucose metabolism, vascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle inflammation in type 2 diabetic subjects. [2011.05]
BACKGROUND: To test potential differences between the actions of anti-diabetic medications, we examined the effects of oral hypoglycaemic agents versus glargine-apidra insulin therapy in T2DM... CONCLUSIONS: Oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin therapy treated patients achieved adequate glycemic control and the effects on circulating and muscle inflammatory biomarkers were similar, but only oral hypoglycaemic agents improved insulin sensitivity, vascular function and carotid intimal media thickness. These findings in a small sample suggest that the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents provides additional benefits to patients with T2DM. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A stepwise approach to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and basal insulin treatment failure. [2011.05]
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 1 or 2 preprandial injections before the meals of greatest glycemic impact can be as effective as 3 preprandial injections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and basal insulin treatment failure... CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that initiation of prandial insulin in a simplified stepwise approach is an effective alternative to the current routine 3 preprandial injection basal-bolus approach.
Comparable efficacy and safety of insulin glulisine and insulin lispro when given as part of a Basal-bolus insulin regimen in a 26-week trial in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. [2011.03]
BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy and safety of insulin glulisine with insulin lispro as part of a basal-bolus regimen in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes... CONCLUSIONS: Glulisine was as effective as lispro in baseline-to-endpoint A1c change, and both treatments were similarly well tolerated.
Clinical Trials Related to Apidra (Insulin Glulisine)
Treatment Satisfaction of Insulin Glargine Plus Insulin Apidra Compared With NPH Insulin Plus Insulin Apidra in Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Children and Adolescents [Recruiting]
A randomized, crossover, open study in order to compare treatment satisfaction with insulin
Glargine plus insulin Apidra Vs NPH insulin plus insulin Apidra in newly diagnosed children
and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
The study will include two consecutive periods: 2 weeks run in period and 24 weeks
intervention period, divided into two separate treatment periods of 12 weeks. According to
randomization, each patient will be treated consecutively with both treatment arms: 12 weeks
with insulin Glargine and than 12 weeks with NPH insulin or 12 weeks with insulin NPH ad
than 12 weeks with insulin Glargine. Patients will complete DTSQ (Diabetes Treatment
Satisfaction Questionnaire) at months 0, 12 and 24 weeks, before and at the end of each
Insulin Glulisine Administered Pre-Meal Versus Post-Meal in Adult Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Receiving Insulin Glargine as Basal Insulin [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to compare the change in weight from baseline to study week 52
in the per-protocol population of pre-meal insulin glulisine (Apidra) versus post-meal
Apidra, in patients receiving insulin glargine (Lantus) as basal insulin.
The Effect of Insulin Glulisine Compared With Insulin Aspart on Breakfast Post Prandial Glucose Levels in Prepubertal Children [Recruiting]
To determine whether insulin glulisine decreases the breakfast post prandial glycemic
excursion in comparison to insulin aspart.
Comparator Trial Using Insulin Glulisine vs. Insulin Lispro for Treatment of Gestational Diabetes [Not yet recruiting]
We hypothesize that insulin glulisine is non-inferior to currently proven rapid-acting
insulin lispro when used in a basal/bolus regimen to treat hyperglycemia in patients with
gestational diabetes mellitus.
BASAAL PLUS - Better Acceptance of Single Injection Apidra Added to Once Daily Lantus Versus Twice Daily Premixed Insulin in Real Life Use Setting [Recruiting]
To demonstrate non-inferiority of once daily injection of insulin glargine (Lantus) plus one
injection of mealtime insulin glulisine (Apidra) at the main meal versus twice daily
premixed insulin (NovoMix 30/70) based on the reduction of HbA1c percentage from baseline to
- To determine treatment satisfaction (DTSQs/Diabetes Treatment Questionnaire - Status,
DTSQc/ Diabetes Treatment Questionnaire - change and ITSQ/Insulin Treatment
- To determine the mean HbA1c, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), prandial BG (Blood Glucose)
and proportion of patients with a HbA1c <7%
- To determine the effect on adverse events (e. g. symptomatic hypoglycemic events, weight
gain and injection site reactions)
- To determine the total insulin dose, average insulin glargine, insulin glulisine and
premixed insulin dosages.
Reports of Suspected Apidra (Insulin Glulisine) Side Effects
Blood Glucose Increased (77),
Product Quality Issue (36),
Blood Glucose Decreased (22),
Visual Impairment (22),
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (21),
Confusional State (16),
Drug Ineffective (16), more >>