Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans) is a sterile, non-pyrogenic preparation derived by drying a frozen solution of specific venom-neutralizing globulins obtained from the blood serum of healthy horses immunized against venom of black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans). It is standardized by biological assay on mice, in terms of one dose of antivenin neutralizing the venom in not less than 6000 mouse LD50 of Latrodectus mactans. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative. When constituted as specified, it is opalescent, ranging in color from light (straw) to very dark (iced tea), and contains not more than 20.0 percent of solids.
Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans) is used to treat patients with symptoms due to bites by the black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans). Early use of the Antivenin is emphasized for prompt relief.
Published Studies Related to Antivenin (Latrodectus Mactans)
Monospecific antivenin therapy in Russell's viper bite. [1994.06]
Venom antigenemia was detected in 24 out of 30 Russell's viper bites. Those who suffered clinical bleeding (N = 14) had higher venom antigenemia than those who did not.One patient with clinical diagnosis of central nervous system bleeding died on admission.
Antivenin remains effective against African Viperidae bites despite a delayed treatment. [2011.02]
BACKGROUND: Viperidae bites represent a public health issue in Africa and are responsible for a hemorrhagic syndrome with fatal outcome in the short term. A research on Medline database does not reveal any data definitively demonstrating the efficiency of antivenom in case of delayed administration. The aim of this study, based on a 12-year survey of viperine syndromes in Republic of Djibouti, was to compare the normalization of the hemostasis disorders with an early administration of antivenin versus a delayed administration... CONCLUSION: Antivenin should ideally be administered as early as possible. However, in Africa, time to treatment generally exceeds 24 hours. The results of the present evidence-based study confirm an empirical concept: a delayed time to treatment should in no way counterindicate the use of antivenin immunotherapy, in the case of African Viperidae bites. Copyright A(c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antivenin-related serum sickness. [2010.10]
Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction that occurs due to the deposition of excessive circulating immune complexes in patients treated with foreign proteins or haptens. Serum sickness induced by antivenin for snakebites has been frequently reported in the USA, but not in Taiwan...
An evaluation of snake bites and antivenin use at a regional medical center. [2010.07]
Snake bites are a rare but challenging problem for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate our experience with snake bites at a regional medical center...
Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital. [2010.03]
BACKGROUND: Several thousand people are bitten annually by venomous snakes in the US. While the development of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenin (FabAV) for Crotalinae snakebite envenomations has greatly changed the way this clinical presentation is treated, multiple issues complicate its use. From patient assessment and evaluation, to medication preparation and administration, to the management of adverse drug reactions, the use of this antidote carries with it multiple points of possible medication variances. The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient. OBJECTIVE: To describe an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach that was taken to ensure optimal, safe, and cost-effective treatment of patients with FabAV... CONCLUSIONS: Initial results from implementation of a protocol for use of FabAV have limited inappropriate use, reduced medication wastage, and decreased costs.
Clinical Trials Related to Antivenin (Latrodectus Mactans)
Comparison of Two Dose Regimens of Snake Antivenom for the Treatment of Snake Bites Envenoming in Nepal [Recruiting]
This study aims at comparing two doses of antivenom in the treatment of snake bite
envenoming. It will take place in 3 centers in rural Nepal and will involve 250 snake bite
victims presenting with one or more sign of neurotoxic envenoming. The objective of the
study is to generate enough scientific evidence to improve Nepal's current national
guidelines for the management of snake bites.
The Efficacy and Safety of Aracmyn in Patients With Systemic Latrodectism [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and effectiveness of an investigational
antivenom and the current standard of care (pain management with opioid analgesics) for
treating patients with a widow spider bite. The working hypotheses are as follows:
1. the investigational antivenom is more promptly effective at alleviating the pain
associated with a widow spider bite than routine management with opioid pain medication
2. the investigational antivenom is as safe a treatment as opioid pain medication in
treating patients with a widow spider bite.
Improving Safety of Antivenom in People Bitten by Snakes [Completed]
A study to increase the safety of polyvalent antivenom involving 1000 patients in three
centres: low dose adrenaline, promethazine, & hydrocortisone (alone and in combination) to
prevent acute adverse reactions to antivenom in people bitten by snakes: randomised, double
blind, placebo-controlled trial.
The Efficacy of Crotaline Fab Antivenom for Copperhead Snake Envenomations [Recruiting]
Most patients bitten by copperhead snakes do not currently receive antivenom. Some snakebite
victims have long term problems with the function of the limb that was bitten. This study
will determine whether early administration of antivenom to patients with mild to moderate
copperhead snakebites reduces long-term complications.
Phase 3 Multicenter Comparative Study to Confirm Safety and Effectiveness of the F(ab)2 Antivenom Anavip. [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to establish if F(ab)2 antivenom (Anavip) is safe for
crotalinae envenomation. Confirm its effectiveness in preventing the occurrence of delayed
coagulopathies and compare the safety and efficacy with Fab antivenom (CroFab) in patients
with Crotalinae envenomation.