Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans) is a sterile, non-pyrogenic preparation derived by drying a frozen solution of specific venom-neutralizing globulins obtained from the blood serum of healthy horses immunized against venom of black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans). It is standardized by biological assay on mice, in terms of one dose of antivenin neutralizing the venom in not less than 6000 mouse LD50 of Latrodectus mactans. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative. When constituted as specified, it is opalescent, ranging in color from light (straw) to very dark (iced tea), and contains not more than 20.0 percent of solids.
Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans) is used to treat patients with symptoms due to bites by the black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans). Early use of the Antivenin is emphasized for prompt relief.
Published Studies Related to Antivenin (Latrodectus Mactans)
Monospecific antivenin therapy in Russell's viper bite. [1994.06]
Venom antigenemia was detected in 24 out of 30 Russell's viper bites. Those who suffered clinical bleeding (N = 14) had higher venom antigenemia than those who did not.One patient with clinical diagnosis of central nervous system bleeding died on admission.
Antivenin remains effective against African Viperidae bites despite a delayed treatment. [2011.02]
BACKGROUND: Viperidae bites represent a public health issue in Africa and are responsible for a hemorrhagic syndrome with fatal outcome in the short term. A research on Medline database does not reveal any data definitively demonstrating the efficiency of antivenom in case of delayed administration. The aim of this study, based on a 12-year survey of viperine syndromes in Republic of Djibouti, was to compare the normalization of the hemostasis disorders with an early administration of antivenin versus a delayed administration... CONCLUSION: Antivenin should ideally be administered as early as possible. However, in Africa, time to treatment generally exceeds 24 hours. The results of the present evidence-based study confirm an empirical concept: a delayed time to treatment should in no way counterindicate the use of antivenin immunotherapy, in the case of African Viperidae bites. Copyright A(c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antivenin-related serum sickness. [2010.10]
Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction that occurs due to the deposition of excessive circulating immune complexes in patients treated with foreign proteins or haptens. Serum sickness induced by antivenin for snakebites has been frequently reported in the USA, but not in Taiwan...
An evaluation of snake bites and antivenin use at a regional medical center. [2010.07]
Snake bites are a rare but challenging problem for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate our experience with snake bites at a regional medical center...
Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital. [2010.03]
BACKGROUND: Several thousand people are bitten annually by venomous snakes in the US. While the development of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenin (FabAV) for Crotalinae snakebite envenomations has greatly changed the way this clinical presentation is treated, multiple issues complicate its use. From patient assessment and evaluation, to medication preparation and administration, to the management of adverse drug reactions, the use of this antidote carries with it multiple points of possible medication variances. The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient. OBJECTIVE: To describe an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach that was taken to ensure optimal, safe, and cost-effective treatment of patients with FabAV... CONCLUSIONS: Initial results from implementation of a protocol for use of FabAV have limited inappropriate use, reduced medication wastage, and decreased costs.
Clinical Trials Related to Antivenin (Latrodectus Mactans)
A Controlled Clinical Trial on The Use of a Specific Antivenom Against Envenoming by Bungarus Multicinctus [Completed]
In northern Vietnam, a vast majority of the most severe envenomed patients are bitten by
Bungarus multicinctus. Hitherto, these victims have received supportive care only. The aims
of this study were to assess the possible efficacy and side effects of a newly produced
Black Widow Spider Antivenin for Patients With Systemic Latrodectism [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness and safety of a new antivenom called
Analatro® for treating black widow spider bites in patients who present to a hospital
emergency room within 24 hours of symptom onset. This study will be a phase III,
multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study that takes place in emergency
departments. The primary aim of this study is to determine the proportion of patients in
which pain control was not achieved by 48 hours post treatment. Secondary aims are as
follows: 1) a reduction in pain intensity at the end of the treatment phase compared to
baseline; 2) the proportion of patients with a clinically significant decrease in pain
intensity at 30 minutes post-treatment; 3) the proportion of patients in which drug-related
adverse events occurred; and 4) to determine if serious, drug-related adverse events in
Analatro-treated patients occurred at a rate greater than one in 10 (10%).
Comparison of Two Dose Regimens of Snake Antivenom for the Treatment of Snake Bites Envenoming in Nepal [Active, not recruiting]
This study aims at comparing two doses of antivenom in the treatment of snake bite
envenoming. It will take place in 3 centers in rural Nepal and will involve 250 snake bite
victims presenting with one or more sign of neurotoxic envenoming. The objective of the
study is to generate enough scientific evidence to improve Nepal's current national
guidelines for the management of snake bites.
Emergency Treatment of Coral Snake Envenomation With Antivenom [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to see whether a new F(ab')2 antivenom will prevent injury and
death from the bite of a coral snake.
Funding Source - FDA OOPD.
A Trial of Equine F (ab')2 Antivenom for Treatment of Scorpion Envenomation in Morocco [Not yet recruiting]
This study has the objective to demonstrate the effectiveness of Alacramyn NAMO in the
treatment of North Africa and Middle East scorpions envenomation by reducing the severity of
envenomation. The primary endpoint is make a comparison between antivenom and placebo
groups, at 4 hours after study drug, of the number of cases showing improvement in class of