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Amphetamine (Amphetamine) - Summary

 
 



AMPHETAMINE SUMMARY

A single entity amphetamine product combining the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, l-amphetamine aspartate.

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: Adderall is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children with behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate to severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. The diagnosis of this syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of comparatively recent origin. Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Media Articles Related to Amphetamine

Genes for 'Liking' Amphetamine Lower Schizophrenia, ADHD Risk
Source: Medscape Today Headlines [2014.04.10]
Genetic variants that increase sensitivity to the euphoric effects of amphetamine may also protect against the development of schizophrenia or ADHD.
Medscape Medical News

Those with a genetic predisposition to liking amphetamine are at a reduced risk of schizophrenia and ADHD
Source: ADHD News From Medical News Today [2014.04.09]
Genetic variants associated with enjoying the effects of d-amphetamine - the active ingredient in Adderall - are also associated with a reduced risk for developing schizophrenia and attention deficit...

Childhood physical abuse a concern in attention deficit disorder
Source: ADHD News From Medical News Today [2014.03.10]
Thirty percent of adults with Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) report they were physically abused before they turned 18.

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Published Studies Related to Amphetamine

A retrospective analysis of two randomized trials of bupropion for methamphetamine dependence: suggested guidelines for treatment discontinuation/augmentation. [2012]
BACKGROUND: Two clinical trials have shown efficacy for bupropion in treating methamphetamine (MA) dependence among those with moderate baseline MA use. However, treatment response is highly variable and it is unclear what duration of treatment is necessary to determine if maintaining the treatment course is indicated or if discontinuation or augmentation is appropriate.

Dexamphetamine improves upper extremity outcome during rehabilitation after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. [2011.10]
BACKGROUND: For early inpatient stroke rehabilitation, the effectiveness of amphetamine combined with physiotherapy varies across studies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the recovery of activities of daily living (ADL, primary outcome) and motor function (secondary outcome) can be improved by dexamphetamine added to physiotherapy... CONCLUSION: In this small trial that was based on prior positive trials, significant gains in ADL and arm function suggest that the dose and timing of dexamphetamine can augment physiotherapy. Effect size calculation suggests inclusion of at least 25 patients per group in future studies.

Medication adherence and symptom reduction in adults treated with mixed amphetamine salts in a randomized crossover study. [2011.09]
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to 1) evaluate medication adherence for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with 3 times daily (TID) mixed amphetamine salts immediate release (MAS IR) versus once-daily (qAM) MAS extended release (MAS XR) in a randomized, crossover study; and 2) to examine the associations between adherence and efficacy for MAS IR and MAS XR... CONCLUSION: Adults with ADHD adhered equally well with MAS IR as with MAS XR when assessed by pill count and self-report, but not by the MEMS((R)) measures. Both treatments significantly reduced ADHD symptoms, and efficacy was not significantly different between groups. Adherence was not associated with treatment outcome.

The influence of depression on treatment for methamphetamine use. [2011.08.01]
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of comorbid depression influences response to psychological treatment for methamphetamine use... CONCLUSIONS: Over the short term, comorbid depression did not negatively affect response to treatment, with some evidence of a dose-response treatment effect for reduction in depression. This was not maintained at 6 months, indicating that methamphetamine-focused treatment may not enable people with comorbid depression to make sustained improvement at the level of their counterparts without depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12611000355976.

Quality of life among treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent individuals. [2011.07]
As the number of men and women entering treatment for substance use disorders continues to increase across the country, it becomes vitally important to understand their quality of life (QOL) or perceived health status, in order to inform treatment efforts for improving such outcomes.

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Clinical Trials Related to Amphetamine

Dose Response of Mirtazapine to Methamphetamine Induced Interest, Mood Elevation and Reward [Recruiting]
The primary purpose of this study is to determine if Mirtazapine will produce a decrease in interest in the drug, a decrease in mood elevation, and/or a decrease in reward when given before methamphetamine compared to placebo.

Participants will be screened with a psychiatric interview, medical history and physical, laboratory tests, drug of abuse screen and, if female, a urine pregnancy test. They will be provided written informed consent. They will be studied in a within-subjects examination of the subjective mood responses of mirtazapine and methamphetamine. Interactions between methamphetamine and mirtazapine will be assessed by pharmacokinetic studies. Each participant will be introduced to rating scales and cognitive tasks described below. Participants will remain in the research unit for 5 hours on each day that they receive study medication or placebo. They will spend five days in total on the research unit, one day separated by at least one day; then in two day blocks separated by at least one day from another two day block. A venous catheter will be placed for blood draws. Blood pressures and heart rates will be recorded and assessed. Participants will be randomized and double blinded to receive either placebo or mirtazapine orally two hours prior to the administration of randomized and double blinded methamphetamine or placebo in order to have the peak effects of the drugs overlap. VAS-mood, ARCI, GRS, POMS and POMS-E, neurocognitive tasks Trails A and B and Symbol digits modalities test will be administered prior to the mirtazapine or placebo dose, and repeated after the administration of methamphetamine or placebo. After the administration of methamphetamine or placebo, vital signs will be assessed every 15 minutes and the measures will be repeated until 120 minutes have passed from the initial dose of methamphetamine or placebo. Blood will be drawn at one, three and four hour marks for pharmacokinetic testing. This will be repeated on each testing day.

Studying Amphetamine Withdrawal in Humans [Recruiting]
Methamphetamine use is very common in the US and is associated with serious medical and psychiatric problems. There has also been a significant increase in the number of patients entering treatment for methamphetamine dependence, however, no pharmacologic treatment has been identified as effective in treating methamphetamine addiction. Given that withdrawal from methamphetamine is thought to contribute to relapse to methamphetamine use during early treatment, it is important to examine potential pharmacologic agents for alleviating withdrawal. Thus, this study is designed to study methamphetamine withdrawal in humans. To this end, 30 methamphetamine dependent participants (ages 18-65 years) will be entered into a 4-week residential study. Urine samples will be obtained at baseline to ensure recent methamphetamine use. Intake assessments will include cognitive testing, standardized assessment of depression and anxiety, profile of mood states, methamphetamine selective severity assessment, methamphetamine withdrawal assessment, sleep quality and quantity, a pre-attentional measure and attentional measure. Upon admission to the residential facility, all study participants will be started on (20-30mg) long acting amphetamine/d-amphetamine and stabilized over the first 5 days. After stabilization participants will be randomized based on sex, amphetamine withdrawal questionnaire score, and methamphetamine selective severity assessment score to either continued treatment with amphetamine/d-amphetamine or placebo for 2 weeks. All subjects will then be placed on placebo for the last 7 days. The investigators hypothesis is that stopping amphetamine administration in methamphetamine dependent individuals will negatively impact mood, sleep and cognitive function in a time-limited fashion that may differ depending upon the measure and that attentional, but not pre-attentional, measures will be adversely affected in those receiving placebo compared to those maintained on amphetamine.

A Dose Ranging Study of Modafinil for Methamphetamine Dependence [Recruiting]
Patients treated for methamphetamine dependence have high rates of relapse, and no pharmacotherapy has yet been demonstrated to be efficacious. Modafinil (d, l-2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide) is a novel wake- and vigilance-promoting agent that is chemically and pharmacologically dissimilar to CNS stimulants. It is well tolerated and has low abuse liability compared to CNS stimulants. Modafinil is FDA approved for a variety of sleep disorders, may relieve methamphetamine withdrawal symptoms, improves cognitive function, has been shown to reduce cocaine use in dependent users, and is safe when coadministered with intravenous methamphetamine. We will conduct a randomized dose ranging clinical trial of modafinil to establish its safety and efficacy as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence.

Effects of Contingency Management for Methamphetamine Abstinence on Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV in Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) [Recruiting]
This study seeks to decrease methamphetamine use and concomitant high-risk sexual behaviors among methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) by combining a biomedical intervention with a behavioral intervention. The behavioral intervention will consist of an 8-week course of contingency management (CM) through which participants will be reinforced for testing negative for methamphetamine metabolites during periodic urine analyses. The biomedical intervention involves a 28-day course of an antiretroviral drug (Truvada) to be administered after an unanticipated HIV risk exposure (i. e., engaging in either receptive or insertive anal sex without a condom with someone who is HIV-positive or of unknown status). In combining these two interventions, this study seeks to evaluate the combined intervention's effects on sexual risk behaviors and methamphetamine use.

Behavioral Activation and HIV Risk Reduction for Men Who Have Sex With Men With Crystal Meth Abuse [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to research a new behavioral treatment to reduce sexual risk-taking in men who have sex with men (MSM) who abuse crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth), and are at risk for HIV acquisition. This study proposes using a treatment based on our original pilot study that incorporates risk reduction and behavioral activation therapy. In order to help learn what types of treatment programs best help individuals who abuse crystal meth and engage in sexual risk-taking, we will compare our treatment to a control group. The treatment group will receive therapy incorporating behavioral risk reduction counseling with behavioral activation therapy to treat depression, helping individuals reengage in their life. The control group will receive the risk reduction counseling without the behavioral activation therapy. The current study hopes to explore the efficacy of this previous developed treatment in a two-arm pilot randomized controlled trial.

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PATIENT REVIEWS / RATINGS / COMMENTS

Based on a total of 1 ratings/reviews, Amphetamine has an overall score of 9. The effectiveness score is 8 and the side effect score is 8. The scores are on ten point scale: 10 - best, 1 - worst.
 

Amphetamine review by 52 year old female patient

  Rating
Overall rating:  
Effectiveness:   Considerably Effective
Side effects:   Mild Side Effects
  
Treatment Info
Condition / reason:   ADD
Dosage & duration:   30mg taken once daily for the period of 1 year
Other conditions:   none
Other drugs taken:   none
  
Reported Results
Benefits:   Elimated restless feeling and able to sleep at night. The main thing is that I do not go off the deep end when something goes wrong or that I do not control. I also had the side / added benefit of dropping fifteen pounds within the first two monhts of starting medication which also naturally makes you feel better as well.
Side effects:   Taken on an empty stomach, it makes you a little jittery
Comments:   My doctor recommended this course of treatment after several visits and it has worked very well for me.

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Page last updated: 2014-04-10

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