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Amantadine (Amantadine Hydrochloride) - Summary



Amantadine hydrochloride is designated chemically as 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride.

Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are also indicated in the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.

Influenza A Prophylaxis

Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are indicated for chemoprophylaxis against signs and symptoms of influenza A virus infection. Because amantadine does not completely prevent the host immune response to influenza A infection, individuals who take this drug may still develop immune responses to natural disease or vaccination and may be protected when later exposed to antigenically related viruses. Following vaccination during an influenza A outbreak, amantadine prophylaxis should be considered for the 2- to 4-week time period required to develop an antibody response.

Influenza A Treatment

Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are also indicated in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory tract illness caused by influenza A virus strains especially when administered early in the course of illness. There are no well-controlled clinical studies demonstrating that treatment with amantadine hydrochloride capsules will avoid the development of influenza A virus pneumonitis or other complications in high risk patients.

There is no clinical evidence indicating that amantadine hydrochloride capsules are effective in the prophylaxis or treatment of viral respiratory tract illnesses other than those caused by influenza A virus strains.

The following points should be considered before initiating treatment or prophylaxis with amantadine hydrochloride capsules.

  • •Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are not a substitute for early vaccination on an annual basis as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
  • •Influenza viruses change over time. Emergence of resistance mutations could decrease drug effectiveness. Other factors (for example, changes in viral virulence) might also diminish clinical benefit of antiviral drugs. Prescribers should consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use amantadine hydrochloride capsules.
Parkinson’s Disease/Syndrome

Amantadine hydrochloride capsules are indicated in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism and symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication. It is indicated in those elderly patients believed to develop parkinsonism in association with cerebral arteriosclerosis. In the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, amantadine is less effective than levodopa, (-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine, and its efficacy in comparison with the anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs has not yet been established.

Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Reactions

Amantadine hydrochloride is indicated in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions. Although anticholinergic-type side effects have been noted with amantadine when used in patients with drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, there is a lower incidence of these side effects than that observed with the anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs.

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Published Studies Related to Amantadine

Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone plus amantadine in children with autism: a 10-week randomized study. [2013]
risperidone for treatment of autism... CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that amantadine may be a potential

Assessment of treatment algorithms including amantadine, metformin, and zonisamide for the prevention of weight gain with olanzapine: a randomized controlled open-label study. [2011.05.17]
CONCLUSIONS: Pooled treatment algorithm results were not significantly different from olanzapine monotherapy in mitigating weight gain. However, participants who received treatment with metformin with possible progression to amantadine and then zonisamide had significantly less mean weight gain than participants treated with olanzapine alone. Progression of some participants through the algorithm indicated that a single therapy solution may not be adequate for every patient. Patients treated with olanzapine should receive regular weight monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00401973. (c) Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Amantadine for dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. [2010.12.31]
BACKGROUND: Dyskinesias are some of the major motor complications that impair quality of life for patients with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of amantadine in Parkinson's disease patients suffering from dyskinesias... CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study demonstrated that amantadine exhibited efficacious effects against dyskinesias in 60-70% of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry UMIN000000780.

Amantadine versus methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind trial. [2010.12.08]
Objective The aim of the present study was to further evaluate, under double blind and controlled conditions, the efficacy of amantadine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents as compared to methylphenidate.Methods This was a 6-week randomized clinical trial...

Amantadine versus methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind trial. [2010.11]
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to further evaluate, under double blind and controlled conditions, the efficacy of amantadine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents as compared to methylphenidate... CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that amantadine significantly improved symptoms of ADHD and was well tolerated and it may be beneficial in the treatment of children with ADHD. Nevertheless, the present results do not constitute proof of efficacy. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Clinical Trials Related to Amantadine

Study of Amantadine for Risperidone Consta or Paliperidone Treated Patients to Decrease Prolactin Elevation [Terminated]
The purpose of this study is to show that amantadine might help to reduce the side effect of the medications which are prescribed to treat schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. High level of hormone prolactin, or hyperprolactinemia, is one of the side effects which might be developed in patients treated with the paliperidone ER or risperidone Consta. High level of prolactin might stimulate breast development, might decrease sexual desire (libido). The goals of this study are to demonstrate that amantadine lowers prolactin levels, decreases side effects, and improves psychiatric symptoms.

Amantadine + rTMS as a Neurotherapeutic for Disordered Consciousness [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with Amantadine relative to rTMS Alone and Amantadine Alone for persons in chronic states of seriously impaired consciousness. The hypothesis is that provision of rTMS+Amantadine will provide a safe yet synergistic effect that induces or accelerates functional recovery.

Amantadine and L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesia in Early Parkinson's Disease [Recruiting]
Traditionally amantadine is used at the beginning of PD treatment in the early stages of the disease, as a modest antiparkinsonian symptomatic treatment. This treatment is usually maintained for no more than the first few months of management, before resorting to drugs deemed more effective as dopamine agonists and L-DOPA. A more modern use of the drug is at a more advanced stage of PD when dyskinesia are already established and become disabling for the patients. There is no data between these two extremes of life stages of Parkinsonism. However, the mechanisms of action of amantadine and the pathophysiology of the motor complications induced by L-DOPA, in particular dyskinesia suggest that the early and prolonged use of amantadine in the early years of management, before L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia have already emerged, should have a positive impact on long-term occurrence and fate of these symptoms, possibly through a glutamatergic mechanism of brain plasticity-of the "disease modification" type. The primary purpose of this study is to demonstrate that early introduction of treatment with amantadine (200 mg / d) in the early years of therapeutic care, that is to say during the "honeymoon" of levodopa (early phase of disease <3 years of diagnosis <1 year of L-dopa and lack of complications of levodopa therapy) decreases the rate of subjects with abnormal involuntary dyskinetic movements after 18 months of follow-up.

Amantadine to Speed Awakening After Cardiac Arrest [Not yet recruiting]
This study evaluates if amantadine will increase the rate of awakening in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest but comatose (not following commands) after their resuscitation. Half of the participants will receive amantadine and the other will receive placebo.

Study of Amantadine for Weight Stabilization During Olanzapine Treatment [Completed]
Weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication use is a major side effect that limits the tolerability of these drugs. This often significant weight gain adversely affects health, increasing risks for developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, cancers of the colon, kidneys, uterus, endometrium and esophagus and osteoarthritis. Beasley and colleagues (1997) reported that 40. 5% of olanzapine-treated patients gained more than 7% of baseline weight. Much of the olanzapine induced weight gain occurs early in treatment, and antipsychotic-naïve and young patients (Woods et al., 2002) are particularly vulnerable to this side effect. One of the most promising medications to aid weight loss in patients taking olanzapine is amantadine. Attempts at preventing weight gain are expected to be more successful than attempts to reverse it once it occurs. It is now common clinical practice to educate all patients beginning treatment with olanzapine, and other antipsychotics, about healthy eating and the need for exercise. However, despite this effort, weight gain in this population continues. Beginning a weight-stabilizing medication after a low threshold of weight gain has occurred may have significant impact on patients' health and their willingness to continue to take antipsychotics. We propose to investigate the efficacy of amantadine as a weight-stabilizing agent in a population of first-episode psychotic subjects just beginning treatment with antipsychotic agents. This population is generally young and medically healthy, without contraindications to amantadine. They are often of normal body mass index and without obesity-related medical problems. They have much to gain in preventing the weight gain which so often progresses steadily over the course of treatment, is difficult to reverse and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the first episode psychotic population tends to take fewer concomitant psychiatric medications. This is important since these medications may cause weight gain (long term use of mirtazapine, lithium, depakote) or weight loss (short term use of SSRI's) which could confound the effectiveness of amantadine to combat weight gain.

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Page last updated: 2014-11-30

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