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Alkeran Injection (Melphalan) - Summary



Melphalan should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Severe bone marrow suppression with resulting infection or bleeding may occur. Controlled trials comparing intravenous (IV) to oral melphalan have shown more myelosuppression with the IV formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred in approximately 2% of patients who received the IV formulation. Melphalan is leukemogenic in humans. Melphalan produces chromosomal aberrations in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, should be considered potentially mutagenic in humans.



(melphalan hydrochloride)
for Injection

ALKERAN (melphalan), also known as L-phenylalanine mustard, phenylalanine mustard, L-PAM, or L-sarcolysin, is a phenylalanine derivative of nitrogen mustard. Melphalan is a bifunctional alkylating agent which is active against selective human neoplastic diseases.

ALKERAN for Injection is indicated for the palliative treatment of patients with multiple myeloma for whom oral therapy is not appropriate.

See all Alkeran Injection indications & dosage >>


Media Articles Related to Alkeran Injection (Melphalan)

FDA Okays Ixazomib, Another Multiple Myeloma Drug
Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines [2015.11.20]
This is the third approval this year for the treatment of the blood cancer.
FDA Approvals

FDA approves Ninlaro, new oral medication to treat multiple myeloma
Source: Lymphoma / Leukemia / Myeloma News From Medical News Today [2015.11.20]
Today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval for Ninlaro (ixazomib) in combination with two other therapies to treat people with multiple myeloma who have received at least one...

European Commission approves Kyprolis for combination use in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma
Source: Lymphoma / Leukemia / Myeloma News From Medical News Today [2015.11.20]
Amgen has announced the European Commission (EC) granted marketing authorization for Kyprolis® (carfilzomib) in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of adult...

FDA approves Darzalex for patients with previously treated multiple myeloma
Source: Lymphoma / Leukemia / Myeloma News From Medical News Today [2015.11.17]
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted accelerated approval for Darzalex (daratumumab) to treat patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least three prior treatments.

Darzalex Approved for Multiple Myeloma
Source: MedicineNet Multiple Myeloma Specialty [2015.11.17]
Title: Darzalex Approved for Multiple Myeloma
Category: Health News
Created: 11/16/2015 12:00:00 AM
Last Editorial Review: 11/17/2015 12:00:00 AM

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Published Studies Related to Alkeran Injection (Melphalan)

Fewer bone disease events, improvement in bone remodeling, and evidence of bone healing with bortezomib plus melphalan-prednisone vs. melphalan-prednisone in the phase III VISTA trial in multiple myeloma. [2011.05]
OBJECTIVES: Bone disease is a key presenting feature of myeloma. This post hoc analysis of the phase III VISTA trial of bortezomib plus melphalan-prednisone (VMP) vs. MP in previously untreated myeloma patients assessed clinical bone disease events and changes in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker for osteoblast activation, and serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation, during treatment... CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a positive effect of bortezomib on bone metabolism and potentially bone healing in myeloma. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Melphalan-prednisolone and vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone chemotherapy followed by prednisolone/interferon maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study, JCOG0112. [2011.04]
A multicenter phase III study for untreated multiple myeloma was conducted to investigate a switch-induction chemotherapy with melphalan-prednisolone and vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone followed by randomization on maintenance therapy for patients achieving plateau... Vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone/melphalan-prednisolone switch-induction therapy might be feasible and effective for Japanese patients with multiple myeloma.

Three palonosetron regimens to prevent CINV in myeloma patients receiving multiple-day high-dose melphalan and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [2011.04]
BACKGROUND: Explore safety and efficacy of three palonosetron-containing regimens for emesis prevention over 7 days in multiple myeloma (MM) patients receiving melphalan (100 mg/m(2)) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)... CONCLUSIONS: Palonosetron with dexamethasone was safe and effective in preventing emesis in MM patients receiving melphalan and HSCT. This pilot study with a limited number of patients suggests that multiple doses of palonosetron could be more effective than a single dose in making patients emesis free without need for rescue medication. However, even multiple doses of palonosetron resulted in only 20% of patients being emesis free without rescue medication, suggesting that further improvement will require development of more effective combination antiemetic therapy. (c) The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

Addition of thalidomide to oral melphalan/prednisone in patients with multiple myeloma not eligible for transplantation: results of a randomized trial from the Turkish Myeloma Study Group. [2011.01]
The combination of melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide (MPT) has been investigated in several clinical studies that differed significantly with regard to patient characteristics and treatment schedules... Although patients treated with MPT were relatively younger and had more frequent RI, better responses and less early mortality were observed in all age groups despite more frequent discontinuation.

Risk factors for, and reversibility of, peripheral neuropathy associated with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma: subanalysis of the phase 3 VISTA study. [2011.01]
OBJECTIVES: This subanalysis of the phase 3 VISTA trial aimed to assess the frequency, characteristics and reversibility of, and prognostic factors for, bortezomib-associated peripheral neuropathy (PN) in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma ineligible for high-dose therapy who received bortezomib plus melphalan-prednisone... CONCLUSIONS: Rates of bortezomib-induced PN in the frontline setting were similar to those in relapsed patients and resolved in most cases. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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Clinical Trials Related to Alkeran Injection (Melphalan)

A Pharmacokinetic Study of Melphalan HCL for Injection (Propylene Glycol-Free) and Alkeran for Injection for Myeloablative Conditioning in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Transplantation [Completed]

Busulfan Plus Melphalan Versus Melphalan [Recruiting]
The goal of this clinical research study is to compare Busulfex (busulfan) with or without Alkeran (melphalan) to learn which study therapy may be better at helping to control MM in patients who will receive an autologous stem cell transplant. The safety of this combination therapy will also be studied. Melphalan and busulfan are designed to damage the DNA (genetic material) of cells, which may cause cancer cells to die.

Pomalidomide With Melphalan and Dexamethasone for Untreated Systemic AL Amyloidosis [Terminated]
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of pomalidomide that can be given in combination with melphalan and dexamethasone that can be given to patients with AL amyloidosis. The safety of this drug combination will also be studied. Pomalidomide is designed to change the body's immune system. It may also interfere with the development of tiny blood vessels that help support tumor growth. This may decrease the growth of cancer cells. Melphalan is designed to damage the DNA (genetic material) of cells, which may cause cancer cells to die. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid that is similar to a natural hormone made by your body. Dexamethasone is often given to Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients in combination with other chemotherapy to treat cancer.

Melphalan and Amifostine Followed By One or Two Autologous or Syngeneic Stem Cell Transplants and Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Multiple Myeloma [Completed]
RATIONALE: Giving chemotherapy drugs, such as melphalan, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Chemoprotective drugs, such as amifostine, may protect normal cells from the side effects of chemotherapy. Giving chemotherapy with a peripheral stem cell transplant once or twice, using stem cells from the patient or an identical brother or sister, may allow more chemotherapy to be given so more cancer cells are killed. Giving maintenance therapy after a stem cell transplant may kill any cancer cells that remain. It is not yet known which dose of melphalan is more effective in treating multiple myeloma (MM). PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying two different doses of melphalan to compare how well they work when given together with amifostine followed by one or two autologous or syngeneic stem cell transplants and maintenance therapy in treating patients with stage II-III MM

A Pharmacokinetic Study of Melphalan in Children [Recruiting]
The purpose of this study is to examine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of melphalan in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Melphalan is an important component of HSCT preparative regimens, but can be associated with significant toxicity. PK data is a powerful clinical tool that, when used to develop individualized treatment plans for a specific patient, may ultimately increase the likelihood of selecting the right dose for the right patient and/or of reducing the number of adverse drug events. The investigators' goal is to establish baseline pediatric melphalan PK data. These data may be used for patient specific dosing of melphalan in the future to minimize toxicity and improve transplant outcomes.

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Page last updated: 2015-11-20

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