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Aldactone (Spironolactone) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

ACE inhibitors

Concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors with potassium-sparing diuretics has been associated with severe hyperkalemia.

Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics

Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.

Corticosteroids, ACTH

Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia, may occur.

Pressor amines (eg, norepinephrine)

Spironolactone reduces the vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine. Therefore, caution should be exercised in the management of patients subjected to regional or general anesthesia while they are being treated with Aldactone.

Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (eg, tubocurarine)

Possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant may result.

Lithium

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

In some patients, the administration of an NSAID can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effect of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Combination of NSAIDs, eg, indomethacin, with potassium-sparing diuretics has been associated with severe hyperkalemia. Therefore, when Aldactone and NSAIDs are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.

Digoxin

Spironolactone has been shown to increase the half-life of digoxin. This may result in increased serum digoxin levels and subsequent digitalis toxicity. It may be necessary to reduce the maintenance and digitalization doses when spironolactone is administered, and the patient should be carefully monitored to avoid over- or underdigitalization.

OVERDOSAGE

The oral LD50 of spironolactone is greater than 1,000 mg/kg in mice, rats, and rabbits.

Acute overdosage of spironolactone may be manifested by drowsiness, mental confusion, maculopapular or erythematous rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or diarrhea. Rarely, instances of hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or hepatic coma may occur in patients with severe liver disease, but these are unlikely due to acute overdosage. Hyperkalemia may occur, especially in patients with impaired renal function.

Treatment

Induce vomiting or evacuate the stomach by lavage. There is no specific antidote. Treatment is supportive to maintain hydration, electrolyte balance, and vital functions.

Patients who have renal impairment may develop spironolactone-induced hyperkalemia. In such cases, Aldactone should be discontinued immediately. With severe hyperkalemia, the clinical situation dictates the procedures to be employed. These include the intravenous administration of calcium chloride solution, sodium bicarbonate solution and/or the oral or parenteral administration of glucose with a rapid-acting insulin preparation. These are temporary measures to be repeated as required. Cationic exchange resins such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be orally or rectally administered. Persistent hyperkalemia may require dialysis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Aldactone is contraindicated for patients with anuria, acute renal insufficiency, significant impairment of renal excretory function, or hyperkalemia.

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