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AK-Fluor (Fluorescein Sodium) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

AK-FLUOR® (fluorescein injection, USP) is a sterile solution for use intravenously as a diagnostic aid. It is a dark reddish orange solution with a pH of 8.3 - 9.8 and an osmolality of 572 to 858 mOsm/kg for the 10% and 1800 to 2200 mOsm/kg for the 25%. Its chemical name is spiro[isobenzofuran-1 (3H),9'-[9H]xanthene]-3-one,3'6'-dihydroxy, disodium salt. The active ingredient is represented by the chemical structure:

MW = 376.27

AK-FLUOR® 10% contains:

Active: fluorescein sodium (equivalent to fluorescein 10 % w/v, 100 mg/mL)

Inactives: Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may be used to adjust pH (8.3 to 9.8), and Water for Injection.

AK-FLUOR® 25% contains:

Active: fluorescein sodium (equivalent to fluorescein 25% w/v, 250 mg/mL)

Inactives: Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may be used to adjust pH (8.3 to 9.8), and Water for Injection.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Fluorescein sodium responds to electromagnetic radiation and light between the wavelengths of 465 to 490 nm and fluoresces, i.e., emits light at wavelengths of 520 to 530 nm. Thus, the hydrocarbon is excited by blue light and emits light that appears yellowish green. Following intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium in an aqueous solution, the unbound fraction of the fluorescein can be excited with a blue light flash from a fundus camera as it circulates through the ocular vasculature, and the yellowish green fluorescence of the dye is captured by the camera. In the fundus, the fluorescence of the dye demarcates the retinal and/or choroidal vasculature under observation, distinguishing it from adjacent areas/structures.

Pharmacokinetics

Distribution.

Within 7 to 14 seconds after IV administration into the antecubital vein, fluorescein usually appears in the central retinal artery of the eye. Within a few minutes of IV administration of fluorescein sodium, a yellowish discoloration of the skin occurs, which begins to fade 6 to 12 hours after dosing. Various estimates of volume of distribution indicate that fluorescein distributes into interstitial space (0.5 L/kg).

Metabolism.

Fluorescein is metabolized to fluorescein monoglucuronide. After IV administration of fluorescein sodium (14 mg/kg) to 7 healthy subjects, approximately 80% of fluorescein in plasma was converted to glucuronide conjugate after a period of 1 hour post dose.

Excretion.

Fluorescein and its metabolite are mainly eliminated via renal excretion. After IV administration, the urine remains slightly fluorescent for 24 to 36 hours. A renal clearance of 1.75 mL/min/kg and a hepatic clearance (due to conjugation) of 1.50 mL/min/kg have been estimated. The systemic clearance of fluorescein was essentially complete by 48 to 72 hours after administration of 500 mg fluorescein.

NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

There have been no long-term studies done using fluorescein in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential.

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