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Adrenaclick (Epinephrine) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

(4) Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

There are no data from either animal or human studies regarding the carcinogenicity or mutagenicity of epinephrine, and no studies have been conducted to determine its potential for the impairment of fertility. This should not prevent the use of epinephrine under the conditions noted under INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

(5) Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Epinephrine has been shown to have developmental effects in rabbits at a subcutaneous dose of 1.2 mg/kg (approximately 30 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose on a mg/m2 basis), in mice at a subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg (approximately 7 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose on a mg/m2 basis), and in hamsters at a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose on a mg/m2 basis). These effects were not seen in mice at a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose on a mg/m2 basis). Although there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, epinephrine crosses the placenta and could lead to fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion or both. Therefore, epinephrine should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

OVERDOSAGE

Epinephrine is rapidly inactivated in the body, and treatment following overdose with epinephrine is primarily supportive. If necessary, pressor effects may be counteracted by rapidly acting vasodilators or alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs. If prolonged hypotension follows such measures, it may be necessary to administer another pressor drug.

Overdosage of epinephrine may produce extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may result in cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients.

If an epinephrine overdose induces pulmonary edema that interferes with respiration, treatment consists of a rapidly acting alpha-adrenergic blocking drug and/or respiratory support.

Epinephrine overdosage can also cause transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia, and these may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug such as propranolol.

Overdosage sometimes results in extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. Suitable corrective measures must be taken in such situations.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

There are no absolute contraindications to the use of epinephrine in a life-threatening allergic reaction.

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